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OBJECTIVE To obtain information on sex behaviour of a large sample of men who have sex with men (MSM) in India that would assist in planning HIV prevention. METHODS Homosexual/bisexual behaviour of 6661 MSM at 62 urban-rural locations of various sizes in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh was assessed through detailed interview. Multivariate analyses were(More)
BACKGROUND In the spring of 2009, an outbreak of severe pneumonia was reported in conjunction with the concurrent isolation of a novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV), widely known as swine flu, in Mexico. Influenza A (H1N1) subtype viruses have rarely predominated since the 1957 pandemic. The analysis of epidemic pneumonia in the absence of(More)
With the advent of multi-processor systems-on-chip, the interest in process migration is again on the rise both in research and in product development. New challenges associated with the new scenario include increased sensitivity to implementation complexity, tight power budgets, requirements on execution predictability, and the lack of virtual memory(More)
Despite the fact that life expectancy at birth in Mexico has improved from forty-two years in 1940 to seventy-three in 2000, major inequalities persist in health and access to health care. The Mexican health care system has evolved into a series of disjointed subsystems that are incapable of delivering universal health insurance. Without greatly(More)
BACKGROUND Condoms are an essential part of comprehensive HIV prevention and care programmes. We report the accessibility of male condoms for female sex workers (FSWs) and the associated characteristics that may play a major role in determining access to condoms for FSWs. METHODS Confidential interviews of 6509 street- and home-based FSWs in 13 districts(More)
BACKGROUND Heterosexual contact is the most common mode of HIV transmission in India that is largely linked to sex work. We assessed the non-use of condoms in sex work and with regular sex partners by female sex workers (FSWs), and identified its associations that could assist in planning HIV prevention programmes. METHODS Detailed documentation of(More)
Even after 25 years of experience, HIV prevention programming remains largely deficient. We identify four areas that managers of national HIV prevention programmes should reassess and hence refocus their efforts-improvement of targeting, selection, and delivery of prevention interventions, and optimisation of funding. Although each area is not wholly(More)
BACKGROUND After more than 25 years, public health programs have not been able to sufficiently reduce the number of new HIV infections. Over 7,000 people become infected with HIV every day. Lack of convincing evidence of cost-effectiveness (CE) may be one of the reasons why implementation of effective programs is not occurring at sufficient scale. This(More)
BACKGROUND Economic theory and limited empirical data suggest that costs per unit of HIV prevention program output (unit costs) will initially decrease as small programs expand. Unit costs may then reach a nadir and start to increase if expansion continues beyond the economically optimal size. Information on the relationship between scale and unit costs is(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess effects on condom use and other sexual behaviour of an HIV prevention programme at school that promotes the use of condoms with and without emergency contraception. DESIGN Cluster randomised controlled trial. SETTING 40 public high schools in the state of Morelos, Mexico. PARTICIPANTS 10 954 first year high school students. (More)