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Carbon nanotubes are a man-made form of carbon that did not exist in our environment until very recently. Due to their unique chemical, physical, optical, and magnetic properties, carbon nanotubes have found many uses in industrial products and in the field of nanotechnology, including in nanomedicine. However, very little is yet known about the toxicity of(More)
The mutagenic effect of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) characterised by small surface/volume ratio, high diameter and less than 0.1% of metal contaminants was evaluated by the bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test) on Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and TA 100 strains, and on Escherichia coli WP2uvrA strain, in presence and in absence of the(More)
The increasing use of nanomaterials in consumer products highlights the importance of understanding their potential toxic effects. We evaluated cytotoxic and genotoxic/oxidative effects induced by commercial multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on human lung epithelial (A549) cells treated with 5, 10, 40 and 100 µg ml⁻¹ for different exposure times.(More)
Chemical functionalization extends CNT applications conferring them new functions, but could modify their toxicity. We compared cytotoxicity and genotoxic/oxidative effects of -OH functionalized and pristine MWCNTs to evaluated the influence of the functionalization exposing A549 cells to 1-40μg/ml of both MWCNTs for 2, 4 and 24h. Cytotoxicity was evaluated(More)
These lectures provide a pedagogical, introductory review of the so-called Attractor Mechanism (AM) at work in two different 4-dimensional frameworks: extremal black holes in N = 2 supergravity and N = 1 flux compactifications. In the first case, AM determines the stabilization of scalars at the black hole event horizon purely in terms of the electric and(More)
We consider the Attractor Equations of particular N = 2, d = 4 supergravity models whose vector multiplets' scalar manifold is endowed with homogeneous symmetric cubic special Kähler geometry, namely of the so-called st 2 and stu models. In this framework, we derive explicit expressions for the critical moduli corresponding to non-BPS attractors with(More)
We derive the coherent state representation of the integrable spin chain Hamil-tonian with symmetry group SL(2,R). By passing to the continuum limit, we find a spin chain sigma model describing a string moving on the hyperboloid SL(2,R)/U(1). The same sigma model is found by considering strings rotating with large angular momentum in AdS 5 × S 5. The(More)
We study spin models underlying the non-planar dynamics of N = 4 SYM gauge theory. In particular, we derive the non-local spin chain Hamiltonian generating dilatations in the gauge theory at leading order in g 2 YM N but exact in 1 N. States in the spin chain are characterized by a spin-configuration and a linking variable describing how sites in the chain(More)