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During the development of the haustorium, searching hyphae of the parasite and the host parenchyma cells are connected by plasmodesmata. Using transgenic tobacco plants expressing a GFP-labelled movement protein of the tobacco mosaic virus, it was demonstrated that the interspecific plasmodesmata are open. The transfer of substances in the phloem from host(More)
Arabidopsis thaliana and Cuscuta spec. represent a compatible host–parasite combination. Cuscuta produces a haustorium that penetrates the host tissue. In early stages of development the searching hyphae on the tip of the haustorial cone are connected to the host tissue by interspecific plasmodesmata. Ten days after infection, translocation of the(More)
Peripheral blood cells express the complete non-neuronal cholinergic system. For example synthesis of acetylcholine and nicotinic as well muscarinic receptors have been demonstrated in leucocytes isolated from human peripheral blood. In the present experiments mononuclear cells and granulocytes were isolated from the peripheral blood to investigate content(More)
Hiiemae, Palmer, and others described a “process model” of mammalian feeding [1–3] that differs from the conventional swallowing model used almost universally among those of us involved in dysphagia in humans. Among the major differences between the process model and the conventional model are that in the process model (a) food is propelled through the(More)