Stefanie N. Vogel

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Inflammasomes regulate the activity of caspase-1 and the maturation of interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and IL-18. AIM2 has been shown to bind DNA and engage the caspase-1-activating adaptor protein ASC to form a caspase-1-activating inflammasome. Using Aim2-deficient mice, we identify a central role for AIM2 in regulating caspase-1-dependent maturation of IL-1β and(More)
Description of macrophage activation is currently contentious and confusing. Like the biblical Tower of Babel, macrophage activation encompasses a panoply of descriptors used in different ways. The lack of consensus on how to define macrophage activation in experiments in vitro and in vivo impedes progress in multiple ways, including the fact that many(More)
Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 has recently been associated with cellular responses to numerous microbial products, including LPS and bacterial lipoproteins. However, many preparations of LPS contain low concentrations of highly bioactive contaminants described previously as "endotoxin protein," suggesting that these contaminants could be responsible for the(More)
Activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling by microbial signatures is critical to the induction of immune responses. Such responses demand tight regulation. RP105 is a TLR homolog thought to be mostly B cell specific, lacking a signaling domain. We report here that RP105 expression was wide, directly mirroring that of TLR4 on antigen-presenting cells.(More)
Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) agonists induce a subset of TLR4-inducible proinflammatory genes, which suggests the use of differential signaling pathways. Murine macrophages stimulated with the TLR4 agonist Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), but not with TLR2 agonists, induced phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1alpha(More)
In this study, we examined whether tyrosine phosphorylation of the Toll-IL-1 resistance (TIR) domain of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 is required for signaling and blocked in endotoxin tolerance. Introduction of the P712H mutation, responsible for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) unresponsiveness of C3H/HeJ mice, into the TIR domain of constitutively active mouse(More)
This review will focus on the molecular mechanisms of macrophage activation and desensitization by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The most recent advances in the understanding of the function of the LPS receptor complex and its role in the development of the septic shock syndrome and endotoxin tolerance will be discussed.
Francisella tularensis, a gram-negative bacterium, is the etiologic agent of tularemia and has recently been classified as a category A bioterrorism agent. Infections with F. tularensis result in an inflammatory response that plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease; however, the cellular mechanisms mediating this response have not been(More)
In this study, the effect of in vitro endotoxin tolerance on LPS-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, transcription factor induction, and cytokine, chemokine, and Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and 4 gene expression, as well as the involvement of TNF and IL-1 signaling pathways in tolerance, were examined. Pretreatment of mouse macrophages with(More)
Prior exposure to LPS induces a transient state of cell refractoriness to subsequent LPS restimulation, known as endotoxin tolerance. Induction of LPS tolerance has been reported to correlate with decreased cell surface expression of the LPS receptor complex, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/MD-2. However, other results have underscored the existence of(More)