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How different levels of biological organization interact to shape each other's function is a central question in biology. One particularly important topic in this context is how individuals' variation in behaviour shapes group-level characteristics. We investigated how fish that express different locomotory behaviour in an asocial context move collectively(More)
BACKGROUND There have been no data in the literature reporting the influence of sports on the outcome of autologous chondrocyte implantation in chondral defects of the knee. HYPOTHESIS Sports can improve the result of autologous chondrocyte implantation in postoperative follow-up. STUDY DESIGN Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. METHODS Between 1997(More)
PURPOSE Age-dependent studies about the clinical result after microfracture of cartilage lesions in the knee are still missing. This prospective study was performed to discover age-dependent differences in the results after microfracture over a period of 36 months. METHODS Between 1999 and 2002, 85 patients (mean age, 39 years) with full-thickness(More)
In this paper, we present the development and application of current image processing techniques to perform MRI inter-subject comparison of knee cartilage thickness based on the registration of bone structures. Each point in the bone surface which is part of the bone-cartilage interface is assigned a cartilage thickness value. Cartilage and corresponding(More)
A common manifestation of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is the morphological degeneration of articular cartilage. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers the potential to visualize and analyze quantitatively morphology such as cartilage thickness and volume. The purpose of this work was the development of new image processing techniques and(More)
PURPOSE To compare the precision and accuracy of 3.0-T and 1.5-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the quantification of cartilage volume by using direct volumetric measurements as a reference standard. MATERIALS AND METHODS The local animal experimentation committee did not require its approval for this study. Porcine knees were obtained from an(More)
The istiophorid family of billfishes is characterized by an extended rostrum or 'bill'. While various functions (e.g. foraging and hydrodynamic benefits) have been proposed for this structure, until now no study has directly investigated the mechanisms by which billfishes use their rostrum to feed on prey. Here, we present the first unequivocal evidence of(More)
The costs and benefits of group living often depend on the spatial position of individuals within groups and the ability of individuals to occupy preferred positions. For example, models of predation events for moving prey groups predict higher mortality risk for individuals at the periphery and front of groups. We investigated these predictions in sardine(More)
Taxonomy, the science of describing and naming of the living world, is recognized as an important and relevant field in modern biological science. While there is wide agreement on the importance of a complete inventory of all organisms on Earth, the public is partly unaware of the amount of known and unknown biodiversity. Out of the enormous number of(More)