Stefanie Gierer

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The novel human coronavirus EMC (hCoV-EMC), which recently emerged in Saudi Arabia, is highly pathogenic and could pose a significant threat to public health. The elucidation of hCoV-EMC interactions with host cells is critical to our understanding of the pathogenesis of this virus and to the identification of targets for antiviral intervention. Here we(More)
The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) pandemic revealed that zoonotic transmission of animal coronaviruses (CoV) to humans poses a significant threat to public health and warrants surveillance and the development of countermeasures. The activity of host cell proteases, which cleave and activate the SARS-CoV spike (S) protein, is essential for viral(More)
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection is associated with a high case-fatality rate, and the potential pandemic spread of the virus is a public health concern. The spike protein of MERS-CoV (MERS-S) facilitates viral entry into host cells, which depends on activation of MERS-S by cellular proteases. Proteolytic activation of(More)
The type II transmembrane serine proteases TMPRSS2 and HAT activate influenza viruses and the SARS-coronavirus (TMPRSS2) in cell culture and may play an important role in viral spread and pathogenesis in the infected host. However, it is at present largely unclear to what extent these proteases are expressed in viral target cells in human tissues. Here, we(More)
Infection with human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) is associated with the common cold and may result in pneumonia in immunocompromised patients. The viral spike (S) protein is incorporated into the viral envelope and mediates infectious entry of HCoV-229E into host cells, a process that depends on the activation of the S-protein by host cell proteases.(More)
We used a lentiviral vector bearing the viral spike protein to detect neutralizing antibodies against Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in persons from the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. None of the 268 samples tested displayed neutralizing activity, which suggests that MERS-CoV infections in humans are infrequent in this province.
The type II transmembrane serine proteases TMPRSS2 and HAT can cleave and activate the spike protein (S) of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) for membrane fusion. In addition, these proteases cleave the viral receptor, the carboxypeptidase angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and it was proposed that ACE2 cleavage augments(More)
The spike (S) protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) mediates viral entry into target cells. Cleavage and activation of SARS S by a host cell protease is essential for infectious viral entry and the responsible enzymes are potential targets for antiviral intervention. The type II transmembrane serine protease TMPRSS2 cleaves and(More)
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