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OBJECTIVE Adolescents are particularly vulnerable to addiction, and in the case of smoking, this often leads to long-lasting nicotine dependence. The authors investigated a possible neural mechanism underlying this vulnerability. METHOD Functional MRI was performed during reward anticipation in 43 adolescent smokers and 43 subjects matched on age, gender,(More)
OBJECTIVE Increased risk-taking behavior has been associated with addiction, a disorder also linked to abnormalities in reward processing. Specifically, an attenuated response of reward-related areas (e.g., the ventral striatum) to nondrug reward cues has been reported in addiction. One unanswered question is whether risk-taking preference is associated(More)
Life-span theories explain successful aging with an adaptive management of emotional experiences like regret. As opportunities to undo regrettable situations decline with age, a reduced engagement into these situations represents a potentially protective strategy to maintain well-being in older age. Yet, little is known about the underlying neurobiological(More)
The present study combined optimized voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging to detect age-related brain changes. We compared grey matter density maps (grey matter voxel-based morphometry) and white matter fractional anisotropy maps (diffusion tensor imaging-voxel-based morphometry) between two groups of 17 younger and 17 older women. Older(More)
Recent studies have indicated that there are complex interactions between activation changes and structural alterations in aging. To investigate this issue, we combined functional with structural MRI in healthy old and young women. When contrasting correct with incorrect recognition of words, we found decreased right prefrontal as well as increased middle(More)
BACKGROUND Behavioral studies consistently reported an increased preference for positive experiences in older adults. The socio-emotional selectivity theory explains this positivity effect with a motivated goal shift in emotion regulation, which probably depends on available cognitive resources. The present study investigates the neurobiological mechanism(More)
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is present in up to 60% of patients with late-onset depression and constitutes a major diagnostic problem in geriatric psychiatry. Searching for sensitive markers for the detection of early brain changes suggestive of dementia, we compared this depressive risk population with mildly to moderately demented patients and(More)
Previous studies have observed a sex-dependent lateralization of amygdala activation related to emotional memory. Specifically, it was shown that the activity of the right amygdala correlates significantly stronger with memory for images judged as arousing in men than in women, and that there is a significantly stronger relationship in women than in men(More)
The main goal of the present fMRI-study was to identify the neural correlates underlying the successful encoding of words which can subsequently be freely recalled or recognized but not recalled. We were particularly interested in common as well as distinct neural substrates of both retrieval modes. To assess qualitatively differently activated brain areas,(More)
BACKGROUND Functional imaging studies using emotional stimuli have suggested a role for the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in the pathophysiology of midlife depression. In contrast, the neural correlates of late-life depression (LLD), a highly prevalent but under-recognized clinical entity in which age-related brain changes might influence disease(More)