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Long considered merely a trophic and mechanical support to neurons, astrocytes have progressively taken the center stage as their ability to react to acute and chronic neurodegenerative situations became increasingly clear. Reactive astrogliosis starts when trigger molecules produced at the injury site drive astrocytes to leave their quiescent state and(More)
Recently, cannabinoids (CBs) have been shown to possess antitumor properties. Because the psychoactivity of cannabinoid compounds limits their medicinal usage, we undertook the present study to evaluate the in vitro antiproliferative ability of cannabidiol (CBD), a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid compound, on U87 and U373 human glioma cell lines. The addition(More)
We have used primary cultures of rat striatum to study the effects of ATP analogues on the elongation of astrocytic processes, a parameter of astroglial cell differentiation. Parallel studies were performed with basic fibroblast growth factor, a known regulator of astroglial cell function. After three days in culture, both the growth factor and alpha(More)
Excessive cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) induction may play a role in chronic neurological diseases characterized by inflammation and astrogliosis. We have previously identified an astroglial receptor for extracellular nucleotides, a P2Y receptor, whose stimulation leads to arachidonic acid (AA) release, followed, 3 days later, by morphological changes(More)
Upon central nervous system injury, the extracellular concentrations of nucleotides and cysteinyl-leukotrienes, two unrelated families of endogenous signalling molecules, are markedly increased at the site of damage, suggesting that they may act as 'danger signals' to alert responses to tissue damage and start repair. Here we show that, in non-injured(More)
Adenosine receptors modulate neuronal and synaptic function in a range of ways that may make them relevant to the occurrence, development and treatment of brain ischemic damage and degenerative disorders. A(1) adenosine receptors tend to suppress neural activity by a predominantly presynaptic action, while A(2A) adenosine receptors are more likely to(More)
The aim of this review is to summarize and critically discuss the complex role played by adenosine A(2A) receptors (A(2A)Rs) in Huntington's disease (HD). Since A(2A)Rs are mainly localized on the neurons, which degenerate early in HD, and given their ability to stimulate glutamate outflow and inflammatory gliosis, it was hypothesized that they could be(More)
The recently cloned G protein-coupled adenosine A3 receptor has been proposed to play a role in the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia. Because phospholipase C activation occurs as a very early response to brain ischemia, we evaluated the ability of A3- selective and nonselective adenosine analogues to elicit phosphoinositide hydrolysis. In(More)
Uracil nucleotides (i.e., UTP and UDP) have been known for years as fundamental intermediates in the de novo synthesis of the other pyrimidine nucleotides, which altogether represent key building blocks for nucleic acid synthesis. In addition, their sugar conjugates (i.e., UDP-glucose and UDP-galactose) enter in several biochemical routes, for example(More)
1. A brief challenge of rat astrocytes with either alpha, beta-methyleneATP (alpha, beta-meATP) or basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) resulted, three days later, in morphological differentiation of cells, as shown by marked elongation of astrocytic processes. The P2 receptor antagonist suramin prevented alpha, beta-meATP- but not bFGF-induced astrocytic(More)