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Long considered merely a trophic and mechanical support to neurons, astrocytes have progressively taken the center stage as their ability to react to acute and chronic neurodegenerative situations became increasingly clear. Reactive astrogliosis starts when trigger molecules produced at the injury site drive astrocytes to leave their quiescent state and(More)
Upon central nervous system injury, the extracellular concentrations of nucleotides and cysteinyl-leukotrienes, two unrelated families of endogenous signalling molecules, are markedly increased at the site of damage, suggesting that they may act as 'danger signals' to alert responses to tissue damage and start repair. Here we show that, in non-injured(More)
Adenosine receptors modulate neuronal and synaptic function in a range of ways that may make them relevant to the occurrence, development and treatment of brain ischemic damage and degenerative disorders. A(1) adenosine receptors tend to suppress neural activity by a predominantly presynaptic action, while A(2A) adenosine receptors are more likely to(More)
The aim of this review is to summarize and critically discuss the complex role played by adenosine A(2A) receptors (A(2A)Rs) in Huntington's disease (HD). Since A(2A)Rs are mainly localized on the neurons, which degenerate early in HD, and given their ability to stimulate glutamate outflow and inflammatory gliosis, it was hypothesized that they could be(More)
The blood-brain barrier (BBB), the dynamic interface between the nervous tissue and the blood, is composed by endothelial cells, pericytes and astrocytes. Extracellular nucleotides and nucleosides and their receptors (the purinergic system) constitute a widely diffused signaling system involved in many pathophysiological processes. However, the role of this(More)
Central nervous system glial cells release and respond to nucleotides under both physiological and pathological conditions, suggesting that these molecules play key roles in both normal brain function and in repair after damage. In particular, ATP released from astrocytes activates P2 receptors on astrocytes and other brain cells, allowing a form of(More)
Inflammation is the most fundamental body reaction to noxious stimuli. No vascularized tissue, organ or apparatus is free from this response. Several mediators of inflammation, originating from outside (exogenous) or inside (endogenous) the body, are known. Among the endogenous factors, extracellular nucleotides and nucleosides are attracting interest for(More)
Previous literature data show that blockade of A(2A) adenosine receptors via selective antagonists induces protection in various models of neurodegenerative diseases. The mechanisms underlying this effect are still largely unknown. Since it is known that excessive reactive astrogliosis is a factor contributing to cell death in diseases characterized by(More)
Within the trigeminal ganglion, crosstalk between neurons and satellite glial cells (SGCs) contributes to neuronal sensitization and transduction of painful stimuli, including migraine pain, at least partly through activation of purinergic receptor mechanisms. We previously showed that the algogenic mediator bradykinin (BK) potentiates purinergic P2Y(More)
Trigeminal (TG) pain often lacks a satisfactory pharmacological control. A better understanding of the molecular cross-talk between TG neurons and surrounding satellite glial cells (SGCs) could help identifying innovative targets for the development of more effective analgesics. We have previously demonstrated that neuronal pro-algogenic mediators(More)