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BACKGROUND Insulin resistance is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease progression. Current diagnostic tests, such as glycemic indicators, have limitations in the early detection of insulin resistant individuals. We searched for novel biomarkers identifying these at-risk subjects. METHODS Using mass spectrometry, non-targeted(More)
Insulin hyperpolarizes plasma membranes; we tested whether insulin affects ventricular repolarization. In 35 healthy volunteers, we measured the Q-T interval during electrocardiographic monitoring in the resting state and in response to hyperinsulinemia (euglycemic 1-mU. min(-1). kg(-1) insulin clamp). A computerized algorithm was used to identify T waves;(More)
The contribution of gluconeogenesis (GNG) to endogenous glucose output (EGO) in type 2 diabetes is controversial. Little information is available on the separate influence of obesity on GNG. We measured percent GNG (by the 2H2O technique) and EGO (by 6,6-[2H]glucose) in 37 type 2 diabetic subjects (9 lean and 28 obese, mean fasting plasma glucose [FPG] 8.3(More)
Metabolomic screening of fasting plasma from nondiabetic subjects identified α-hydroxybutyrate (α-HB) and linoleoyl-glycerophosphocholine (L-GPC) as joint markers of insulin resistance (IR) and glucose intolerance. To test the predictivity of α-HB and L-GPC for incident dysglycemia, α-HB and L-GPC measurements were obtained in two observational cohorts,(More)
Bile acids (BAs) exert pleiotropic metabolic effects, and physicochemical properties of different BAs affect their function. In rodents, insulin regulates BA composition, in part by regulating the BA 12α-hydroxylase CYP8B1. However, it is unclear whether a similar effect occurs in humans. To address this question, we examined the relationship between(More)
First-phase insulin response to intravenous glucose is impaired both in type 2 diabetic patients and in subjects at risk for the disease. Hyperglycemia can modify beta-cell response by either inhibiting or potentiating both first- and second-phase insulin release. In normal subjects, the effect of acute hyperglycemia on insulin secretion is controversial.(More)
Gastric bypass surgery leads to marked improvements in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in obese type 2 diabetes (T2D); the impact on glucose fluxes in response to a physiological stimulus, such as a mixed meal test (MTT), has not been determined. We administered an MTT to 12 obese T2D patients and 15 obese nondiabetic (ND) subjects before and 1(More)
In 9 patients with essential hypertension, we tested whether a high-dose (12 mg. min(-1)) vitamin C infusion into the brachial artery, by improving endothelium-dependent vasodilatation, would also attenuate the insulin resistance of deep forearm tissues. We measured the effect of vitamin C on acetylcholine (Ach)-induced vasodilatation and on forearm glucose(More)
An increased tissue content of PC-1, an inhibitor of insulin receptor signaling, may play a role in insulin resistance. Large scale prospective studies to test this hypothesis are difficult to carry out because of the need for tissue biopsies. The aim of this study was to investigate whether PC-1 is measurable in human plasma and whether its concentration(More)
Biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) improves insulin sensitivity and decreases serum cholesterol out of proportion with weight loss. Mechanisms of these effects are unknown. One set of proposed contributors to metabolic improvements after bariatric surgeries is bile acids (BAs). We investigated the early and late effects of BPD on plasma BA levels, composition,(More)