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BACKGROUND Insulin resistance is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease progression. Current diagnostic tests, such as glycemic indicators, have limitations in the early detection of insulin resistant individuals. We searched for novel biomarkers identifying these at-risk subjects. METHODS Using mass spectrometry, non-targeted(More)
BACKGROUND Because hyperinsulinemia acutely stimulates adrenergic activity, it has been postulated that chronic hyperinsulinemia may lead to enhanced sympathetic tone and cardiovascular risk. METHODS AND RESULTS In 21 obese (body mass index, 35+/-1 kg/m(2)) and 17 lean subjects, we measured resting cardiac output (by 2-dimensional echocardiography),(More)
OBJECTIVE To quantitate the separate impact of obesity and hyperglycemia on the incretin effect (i.e., the gain in beta-cell function after oral glucose versus intravenous glucose). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Isoglycemic oral (75 g) and intravenous glucose administration was performed in 51 subjects (24 with normal glucose tolerance [NGT], 17 with(More)
In nondiabetic subjects, obesity is associated with a modest expansion of beta-cell mass, possibly amounting-according to the best available estimates-to 10-30% for each 10 kg of weight excess. Whether age of onset and duration of obesity, recent changes in body weight, and body fat distribution have any effect on beta-cell mass in humans is unknown. Both(More)
Gastric bypass surgery leads to marked improvements in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in obese type 2 diabetes (T2D); the impact on glucose fluxes in response to a physiological stimulus, such as a mixed meal test (MTT), has not been determined. We administered an MTT to 12 obese T2D patients and 15 obese nondiabetic (ND) subjects before and 1(More)
Insulin hyperpolarizes plasma membranes; we tested whether insulin affects ventricular repolarization. In 35 healthy volunteers, we measured the Q-T interval during electrocardiographic monitoring in the resting state and in response to hyperinsulinemia (euglycemic 1-mU. min(-1). kg(-1) insulin clamp). A computerized algorithm was used to identify T waves;(More)
OBJECTIVE Increased thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and FT(3) levels are often found in clinically euthyroid obese individuals. Information on thyroid gene expression in human adipose tissue is scarce. The objective of this study was to measure the expression of the TSH receptor (TSHR) and the thyroid hormone receptor (TRalpha1) genes in subcutaneous(More)
Obesity is a frequent cause of insulin resistance and poses a major risk for diabetes. Abnormal fat deposition within skeletal muscle has been identified as a mechanism of obesity-associated insulin resistance. We tested the hypothesis that dietary lipid deprivation may selectively deplete intramyocellular lipids, thereby reversing insulin resistance.(More)
CONTEXT In obese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), Roux-en-Y-gastric-bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SLG) improve glycemic control. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of surgery-induced T2DM improvement and role of gastrointestinal hormones. PATIENTS, SETTING, AND INTERVENTION: In 35 patients with T2DM, we(More)