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It has been suggested that fluctuating asymmetry (FA) reflects an animal's ability to cope with the sum of challenges during its growing period and, thus, is a potential welfare indicator. In this review we investigate the evidence of associations between FA and other welfare indicators measured at the level of the individual and of effects of(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the long-term safety and effectiveness of risperidone for severe disruptive behaviors in children. METHOD A multisite, 1-year, open-label study of patients aged 5 to 14 years with disruptive behaviors and subaverage intelligence was conducted. RESULTS Seventy-three percent of the 504 patients enrolled completed the study. The mean(More)
Domestic fleas were collected in 12 villages in the western Usambara Mountains in Tanzania. Of these, 7 are considered villages with high plague frequency, where human plague was recorded during at least 6 of the 17 plague seasons between 1986 and 2004. In the remaining 5 villages with low plague frequency, plague was either rare or unrecorded. Pulex(More)
Because asymmetric individuals are less attractive and may suffer from reduced fitness, bilateral asymmetry is widely believed to affect human sexual selection. Its evolutionary significance is based on the presumed relationship with developmental instability (DI). Yet, relationships between DI and bilateral asymmetry are often weak and possibly confounded(More)
Developmental instability (DI) is the sensitivity of a developing trait to random noise and can be measured by degrees of directionally random asymmetry [fluctuating asymmetry (FA)]. FA has been shown to increase with loss of genetic variation and inbreeding as measures of genetic stress, but associations vary among studies. Directional selection and(More)
The second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) is smaller in human males than in females and hence this trait is sexually dimorphic. The digit ratio is thought to be established during early prenatal development under the influence of prenatal sex hormones. However, the general assumption of early establishment has hardly been studied. In our study, we analyzed(More)
Developmental instability (DI), as measured by fluctuating asymmetry (FA), may reflect fitness and facilitate the expression of morphological variation. Insights in the underlying mechanisms and magnitude of DI during early development would increase our understanding of its role in evolutionary biology. We studied associations between FA and congenital(More)
One of the most important differences between Bayesian and traditional techniques is that the former combines information available beforehand-captured in the prior distribution and reflecting the subjective state of belief before an experiment is carried out-and what the data teach us, as expressed in the likelihood function. Bayesian inference is based on(More)
BACKGROUND Fluctuating asymmetry (FA), reflecting developmental instability (DI), may honestly signal individual quality and relate to human attractiveness and measures of sexual behaviour. The evolutionary importance of these associations, however, critically depends on the role of DI in driving these correlations. A direct effect of FA reduces the role of(More)
Theory predicts that if particular morphological features correlate with "genetic" quality--i.e., mating with individuals bearing those characteristics increases fitness--selection favors preferences for these features. Both developmental instability (DI)--which emerges morphologically as small random deviations from perfect symmetry, i.e., fluctuating(More)