Stefan Zimmermann

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Immunity to infection with intracellular pathogens is regulated by interleukin 12 (IL-12), which mediates protective T helper type 1 (TH1) responses, or IL-4, which induces TH2 cells and susceptibility. Paradoxically, we show here that when present during the initial activation of dendritic cells (DCs) by infectious agents, IL-4 instructed DCs to produce(More)
In recent years, the percentage of carbapenem-resistant bacteria has increased at an alarming pace and become a major threat for patient survival. Carbapenemase-induced carbapenem resistance can be confirmed through the detection of carbapenem degradation using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). This(More)
Certain bacterial immunostimulatory (i.s.) DNA sequences containing unmethylated CpG motifs stimulate antigen-presenting cells (APC) to express a full complement of costimulatory molecules and to produce cytokines including interleukin (IL)-12 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. While IL-12 is key to their T helper cell (Th)1-promoting adjuvant activity,(More)
During infection, the functional status of the innate immune system is tightly regulated. Although signals resulting in activation have been well characterized, counterregulative mechanisms are poorly understood. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins have been characterized as cytokine-inducible negative regulators of Janus kinase/STAT signaling(More)
Synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG dinucleotides (CpG-ODN) mimic the immunostimulatory qualities of bacterial DNA. We asked whether immunostimulation by CpG-ODN predisposes for a commitment toward a Th1 vs a Th2 response in Leishmania major infection, a model for a lethal Th2-driven disease, in BALB/c mice. CpG-ODN induced Th1 effector T cells(More)
BACKGROUND In August 2006, a case of leptospirosis occurred in an athlete after a triathlon held around Heidelberg and in the Neckar river. In order to study a possible outbreak and to determine risk factors for infection an epidemiological investigation was performed. METHODS Participants of the triathlon were contacted by e-mail and were asked to fill(More)
BACKGROUND Heterotopic ossification (HO) frequently causes complications following orthopaedic and trauma surgery and may drastically reduce the postoperative outcome due to pain and joint contracture. Current therapeutic options include NSAID's and local radiation. However, both options of prevention show disadvantages such as delayed fracture healing and(More)
Bacterial DNA containing motifs of unmethylated CpG dinucleotides (CpG-DNA) triggers innate immune cells through the pattern recognition receptor Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR-9). CpG-DNA possesses potent immunostimulatory effects on macrophages, dendritic cells, and B lymphocytes. Therefore, CpG-DNA contributes to inflammation during the course of bacterial(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) mediate recognition of microbial components. Despite activation of a shared set of signal transduction molecules, the biological effects of certain TLR agonists differ considerably. In macrophages and dendritic cells, stimulation by the prototypical stimuli CpG-DNA (TLR9), lipopolysaccharide (LPS; TLR4) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA;(More)
The replicative lifespan of normal somatic cells is restricted by the erosion of telomeres, which are protective caps at the ends of linear chromosomes. The loss of telomeres induces antiproliferative signals that eventually lead to cellular senescence. The enzyme complex telomerase can maintain telomeres, but its expression is confined to highly(More)