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Certain bacterial immunostimulatory (i.s.) DNA sequences containing unmethylated CpG motifs stimulate antigen-presenting cells (APC) to express a full complement of costimulatory molecules and to produce cytokines including interleukin (IL)-12 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. While IL-12 is key to their T helper cell (Th)1-promoting adjuvant activity,(More)
During infection, the functional status of the innate immune system is tightly regulated. Although signals resulting in activation have been well characterized, counterregulative mechanisms are poorly understood. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins have been characterized as cytokine-inducible negative regulators of Janus kinase/STAT signaling(More)
Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii is the causative agent of Stewart's wilt, a bacterial disease transmitted by the corn flea beetle mainly to sweet corn (Zea mays). In many countries, it is classified as a quarantine organism and must be differentiated from other yellow enteric bacteria frequently occurring with corn. We have created novel primers from the(More)
BACKGROUND In August 2006, a case of leptospirosis occurred in an athlete after a triathlon held around Heidelberg and in the Neckar river. In order to study a possible outbreak and to determine risk factors for infection an epidemiological investigation was performed. METHODS Participants of the triathlon were contacted by e-mail and were asked to fill(More)
Bacterial DNA and oligonucleotides (ODN) containing CpG-motifs strongly activate cells of the immune system. Accordingly CpG-DNA is a powerful adjuvant in vaccination protocols for B-cell as well as for cytotoxic T-cell responses. A decisive propensity of CpG-DNA is its capacity to induce preferentially T helper type 1 (Th1)-dominated immune responses. To(More)
Immunity to infection with intracellular pathogens is regulated by interleukin 12 (IL-12), which mediates protective T helper type 1 (TH1) responses, or IL-4, which induces TH2 cells and susceptibility. Paradoxically, we show here that when present during the initial activation of dendritic cells (DCs) by infectious agents, IL-4 instructed DCs to produce(More)
Bacterial DNA containing motifs of unmethylated CpG dinucleotides (CpG-DNA) triggers innate immune cells through the pattern recognition receptor Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR-9). CpG-DNA possesses potent immunostimulatory effects on macrophages, dendritic cells, and B lymphocytes. Therefore, CpG-DNA contributes to inflammation during the course of bacterial(More)
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most significant pathogens causing nosocomial and community-acquired infections. Among the secreted staphylococcal virulence factors, there is a growing list of enterotoxins which can induce gastroenteric syndrome and toxic shock syndrome. Here, we developed a real-time fluorescence PCR assay (TaqMan PCR) for the(More)
The replicative lifespan of normal somatic cells is restricted by the erosion of telomeres, which are protective caps at the ends of linear chromosomes. The loss of telomeres induces antiproliferative signals that eventually lead to cellular senescence. The enzyme complex telomerase can maintain telomeres, but its expression is confined to highly(More)
BACKGROUND Data on contemporary real-world outcomes of interventional revascularization in patients > or = 75 y of age with ST elevation infarction (STEMI) are limited. METHODS We analyzed all 504 consecutive patients who underwent angiography for acute STEMI between 1999 and 2005 at our center, and followed them up over one year. Outcomes in patients >(More)