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During infection, the functional status of the innate immune system is tightly regulated. Although signals resulting in activation have been well characterized, counterregulative mechanisms are poorly understood. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins have been characterized as cytokine-inducible negative regulators of Janus kinase/STAT signaling(More)
Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii is the causative agent of Stewart's wilt, a bacterial disease transmitted by the corn flea beetle mainly to sweet corn (Zea mays). In many countries, it is classified as a quarantine organism and must be differentiated from other yellow enteric bacteria frequently occurring with corn. We have created novel primers from the(More)
BACKGROUND In August 2006, a case of leptospirosis occurred in an athlete after a triathlon held around Heidelberg and in the Neckar river. In order to study a possible outbreak and to determine risk factors for infection an epidemiological investigation was performed. METHODS Participants of the triathlon were contacted by e-mail and were asked to fill(More)
Immunity to infection with intracellular pathogens is regulated by interleukin 12 (IL-12), which mediates protective T helper type 1 (TH1) responses, or IL-4, which induces TH2 cells and susceptibility. Paradoxically, we show here that when present during the initial activation of dendritic cells (DCs) by infectious agents, IL-4 instructed DCs to produce(More)
Bacterial DNA and oligonucleotides (ODN) containing CpG-motifs strongly activate cells of the immune system. Accordingly CpG-DNA is a powerful adjuvant in vaccination protocols for B-cell as well as for cytotoxic T-cell responses. A decisive propensity of CpG-DNA is its capacity to induce preferentially T helper type 1 (Th1)-dominated immune responses. To(More)
Bacterial DNA containing motifs of unmethylated CpG dinucleotides (CpG-DNA) triggers innate immune cells through the pattern recognition receptor Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR-9). CpG-DNA possesses potent immunostimulatory effects on macrophages, dendritic cells, and B lymphocytes. Therefore, CpG-DNA contributes to inflammation during the course of bacterial(More)
Lung cancer continues to be a major global health problem; the disease is diagnosed in more than 1.6 million new patients each year. However, significant progress is underway in both the prevention and treatment of lung cancer. Lung cancer therapy has now emerged as a "role model" for precision cancer medicine, with several important therapeutic(More)
The replicative lifespan of normal somatic cells is restricted by the erosion of telomeres, which are protective caps at the ends of linear chromosomes. The loss of telomeres induces antiproliferative signals that eventually lead to cellular senescence. The enzyme complex telomerase can maintain telomeres, but its expression is confined to highly(More)
The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical composition of the essential oil of the fruits of Eucalyptus globulus and to examine the potential application of the fruit oil against multidrug-resistant bacteria. GLC/MS analysis in the fruit oil showed that aromadendrene was the main compound followed by 1,8-cineole and globulol. The three(More)
The aim of this study was to obtain an overview of trace element concentrations in Swiss forest soils and to critically assess the measured values with respect to anthropogenic input vs. lithogenic background. Twenty-three sites were selected which represent a broad range of natural forest sites, bedrock material and soil types of Switzerland. At each site,(More)