Learn More
We have used 19.9 million papers over 5 decades and 2.1 million patents to demonstrate that teams increasingly dominate solo authors in the production of knowledge. Research is increasingly done in teams across nearly all fields. Teams typically produce more frequently cited research than individuals do, and this advantage has been increasing over time.(More)
An algorithm is presented for generating rigorously all suboptimal secondary structures between the minimum free energy and an arbitrary upper limit. The algorithm is particularly fast in the vicinity of the minimum free energy. This enables the efficient approximation of statistical quantities, such as the partition function or measures for structural(More)
This paper demonstrates that teamwork in science increasingly spans university boundaries, a dramatic shift in knowledge production that generalizes across virtually all fields of science, engineering, and social science. Moreover, elite universities play a dominant role in this shift. By examining 4.2 million papers published over three decades, we found(More)
I consider conformational spaces of tRNA(phe) defined by sets of suboptimal structures from the perspective of small-world networks. Herein, the influence of modifications on typical small-world network properties and the shape of energy landscapes is discussed. Results indicate that natural modifications influence the degree of local clustering and mean(More)
Understanding why some cellular components are conserved across species but others evolve rapidly is a key question of modern biology. Here we show that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, proteins organized in cohesive patterns of interactions are conserved to a substantially higher degree than those that do not participate in such motifs. We find that the(More)
To obtain candidates of interactions between proteins of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and the human host, homologous and conserved interactions were inferred from various sources of interaction data. Such candidate interactions were assessed by applying a machine learning approach and further filtered according to expression and molecular(More)