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We have used 19.9 million papers over 5 decades and 2.1 million patents to demonstrate that teams increasingly dominate solo authors in the production of knowledge. Research is increasingly done in teams across nearly all fields. Teams typically produce more frequently cited research than individuals do, and this advantage has been increasing over time.(More)
An algorithm is presented for generating rigorously all suboptimal secondary structures between the minimum free energy and an arbitrary upper limit. The algorithm is particularly fast in the vicinity of the minimum free energy. This enables the efficient approximation of statistical quantities, such as the partition function or measures for structural(More)
This paper demonstrates that teamwork in science increasingly spans university boundaries, a dramatic shift in knowledge production that generalizes across virtually all fields of science, engineering, and social science. Moreover, elite universities play a dominant role in this shift. By examining 4.2 million papers published over three decades, we found(More)
  • S Wuchty
  • 2001
Several technical, social, and biological networks were recently found to demonstrate scale-free and small-world behavior instead of random graph characteristics. In this work, the topology of protein domain networks generated with data from the ProDom, Pfam, and Prosite domain databases was studied. It was found that these networks exhibited small-world(More)
I consider conformational spaces of tRNA(phe) defined by sets of suboptimal structures from the perspective of small-world networks. Herein, the influence of modifications on typical small-world network properties and the shape of energy landscapes is discussed. Results indicate that natural modifications influence the degree of local clustering and mean(More)
Understanding why some cellular components are conserved across species but others evolve rapidly is a key question of modern biology. Here we show that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, proteins organized in cohesive patterns of interactions are conserved to a substantially higher degree than those that do not participate in such motifs. We find that the(More)
In complex diseases, various combinations of genomic perturbations often lead to the same phenotype. On a molecular level, combinations of genomic perturbations are assumed to dys-regulate the same cellular pathways. Such a pathway-centric perspective is fundamental to understanding the mechanisms of complex diseases and the identification of potential drug(More)
To obtain candidates of interactions between proteins of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and the human host, homologous and conserved interactions were inferred from various sources of interaction data. Such candidate interactions were assessed by applying a machine learning approach and further filtered according to expression and molecular(More)
Large-scale molecular interaction networks are being increasingly used to provide a system level view of cellular processes. Modeling communications between nodes in such huge networks as information flows is useful for dissecting dynamical dependences between individual network components. In the information flow model, individual nodes are assumed to(More)
Data of currently available protein-protein interaction sets and protein domain sets of yeast are used to set up protein and domain interaction and domain sequence networks. All of them are far from being random or regular networks. In fact, they turn out to be sparse and locally well clustered indicating so-called scale-free and partially small-world(More)