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Angiosperms (flowering plants) dominate contemporary terrestrial flora with roughly 250,000 species, but their origin and early evolution are still poorly understood. In recent years, molecular evidence has accumulated suggesting a dicotyledonous origin of monocots. Phylogenetic reconstructions have suggested that several dicotyledonous groups that include(More)
Primary cilia are important sites of signal transduction involved in a wide range of developmental and postnatal functions. Proteolytic processing of the transcription factor Gli3, for example, occurs in primary cilia, and defects in intraflagellar transport (IFT), which is crucial for the maintenance of primary cilia, can lead to severe developmental(More)
Glucose is the preferred carbon source for most eukaryotic cells and has profound effects on many cellular functions. How cells sense glucose and transduce a signal into the cell is a fundamental, unanswered question. Here we describe evidence that two unusual glucose transporters in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae serve as glucose sensors that generate(More)
The Std1 protein modulates the expression of glucose-regulated genes, but its exact molecular role in this process is unclear. A two-hybrid screen for Std1-interacting proteins identified the hydrophilic C-terminal domains of the glucose sensors, Snf3 and Rgt2. The homologue of Std1, Mth1, behaves differently from Std1 in this assay by interacting with Snf3(More)
A simple microscopic method to three-dimensionally differentiate between various members in photo-autotrophic biofilm systems is described. By dual-channel single-photon (confocal) and two-photon laser scanning microscopy, the signals in the red and far red channels as well as their combination can be simultaneously recorded. The method takes advantage of(More)
Data from gene expression arrays are influenced by many experimental parameters that lead to variations not simply accessible by standard quantification methods. To compare measurements from gene expression array experiments, quantitative data are commonly normalised using reference genes or global normalisation methods based on mean or median values. These(More)
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are involved in the development of various organs including the mammary gland. They are well-regulated and act in a time-, concentration- and cell-type-specific manner. We found that BMP-2 is expressed in primary breast tumor tissue samples and in breast cancer cell lines. Hybridization of labeled cDNA, obtained from the(More)
A series of five ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes [Ru(bpy)2(N--N)]Cl2 was tested against human HT-29 and MCF-7 cancer cell lines. Cellular uptake efficiency and cytotoxicity were found to increase with the size of the aromatic surface area of the N--N ligand. The most active compound carrying the dppn ligand exhibits a low micromolar IC(50) value against(More)
Yeast strains transformed with high copy number plasmids carrying the gene encoding a green fluorescent protein optimised for yeast (yEGFP3) under the control of the RAD54 or RNR2 promoter were used to investigate the activity of potentially DNA-damaging substances. The assays were performed on 96-well microtitre plates in the presence of different(More)
Cell-penetrating peptides (CPP) have become a widely used tool for efficient cargo delivery into cells. However, one limiting fact is their uptake by endocytosis causing the enclosure of the CPP-cargo construct within endosomes. One often used method to enhance the outflow into the cytosol is the fusion of endosome-disruptive peptide or protein sequences to(More)