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In the vertebrate central nervous system, the hindbrain is an important center for coordinating motor activity, posture, equilibrium, sleep patterns, and essential unconscious functions, such as breathing rhythms and blood circulation. During development, the vertebrate hindbrain depends upon the process of segmentation or compartmentalization to create and(More)
The Hoxa2 and Hoxb2 genes are members of paralogy group II and display segmental patterns of expression in the developing vertebrate hindbrain and cranial neural crest cells. Functional analyses have demonstrated that these genes play critical roles in regulating morphogenetic pathways that direct the regional identity and anteroposterior character of(More)
Here, we define a gene regulatory network for Hoxa2, responsible for temporal and spatial expression in hindbrain development. Hoxa2 plays an important role in regulating the regional identity of rhombomere 2 (r2) and is the only Hox gene expressed in this segment. In this study, we found that a Hoxa2 cis-regulatory module consists of five elements that(More)
Muscle differentiation is a highly conserved process that occurs through the activation of quiescent satellite cells whose progeny proliferate, differentiate, and fuse to generate new myofibers. A defined pattern of myogenic transcription factors is orchestrated during this process and is regulated via distinct signaling cascades involving various(More)
Hoxa2 gene is a primary player in regulation of craniofacial programs of head development in vertebrates. Here we investigate the evolution of a Hoxa2 neural crest enhancer identified originally in mouse by comparing and contrasting the fugu hoxa2a and hoxa2b genes with their orthologous teleost and mammalian sequences. Using sequence analyses in(More)
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