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Archaea share with bacteria the ability to bias their movement towards more favorable locations, a process known as taxis. Two molecular systems drive this process: the motility apparatus and the chemotaxis signal transduction system. The first consists of the flagellum, the flagellar motor, and its switch, which allows cells to reverse the rotation of(More)
Halobacterium salinarum swims with the help of a polarly inserted flagellar bundle. In energized cells, the flagellar motors rotate continuously, occasionally switching the rotational sense. Starving cells become immotile as the energy level drops. Presumably, there is a threshold of energy required for flagellar rotation. When starved, immotile cells are(More)
Silencing of gene expression by RNA interference (RNAi) has become a powerful tool for functional genomics in mammalian cells. Furthermore, RNAi holds promise as a simple, fast and cost-effective approach to studying mammalian gene function in vivo and as a novel therapeutic approach. This review provides an overview of the progress of RNAi in vivo, with(More)
SUMMARY Often competing hypotheses for biochemical networks exist in the form of different mathematical models with unknown parameters. Considering available experimental data, it is then desired to reject model hypotheses that are inconsistent with the data, or to estimate the unknown parameters. However, these tasks are complicated because experimental(More)
Pharmacological inhibitors and knockout mice have developed into routine tools to analyze the role of specific genes in behavior. Both strategies have limitations like the availability of inhibitors for only a subset of proteins and the large efforts required to construct specific mouse mutants. The recent emergence of RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene(More)
— Stochastic uncertainties are ubiquitous in complex dynamical systems and can lead to undesired variability of system outputs and, therefore, a notable degradation of closed-loop performance. This paper investigates model predictive control of nonlinear dynamical systems subject to probabilistic parametric uncertainties. A nonlinear model predictive(More)
Despite their diversity, vertebrate retinae are specialized to maximize either photon catch or visual acuity. Here, we describe a functional type that is optimized for neither purpose. In the retina of the elephantnose fish (Gnathonemus petersii), cone photoreceptors are grouped together within reflecting, photonic crystal-lined cups acting as(More)
Production of bio-pharmaceuticals in cell culture, such as mammalian cells, is challenging. Mathematical models can provide support to the analysis, optimization, and the operation of production processes. In particular, unstructured models are suited for these purposes, since they can be tailored to particular process conditions. To this end, growth phases(More)
Stringent requirements on safety and availability of high-performance systems necessitate reliable fault detection and isolation in the event of system failures. This paper investigates active fault diagnosis of nonlinear systems with probabilistic, time-invariant uncertainties of the parameters and initial conditions. A probabilistic model-based approach(More)
Stochastic models are becoming increasingly popular in Systems Biology. They are compulsory, if the stochastic noise is crucial for the behavioural properties to be investigated. Thus, substantial effort has been made to develop appropriate and efficient stochastic analysis techniques. The impressive progress of hardware power and specifically the advent of(More)