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SNARE proteins mediate membrane fusion. Neurosecretion depends on neuronal soluble NSF attachment protein receptors (SNAREs; SNAP-25, syntaxin-1, and synaptobrevin-1 or synaptobrevin-2) and is blocked by neurotoxin-mediated cleavage or genetic ablation. We found that exocytosis in mouse inner hair cells (IHCs) was insensitive to neurotoxins and genetic(More)
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) and tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) inhibit neurotransmitter release by proteolyzing a single peptide bond in one of the three soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors SNAP-25, syntaxin, and vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP)/synaptobrevin. TeNT and BoNT/B, D, F, and G of the seven known BoNTs(More)
Botulinum neurotoxins types B, D, F, and G, and tetanus neurotoxin inhibit vesicular fusion via proteolytic cleavage of VAMP/Synaptobrevin, a core component of the membrane fusion machinery. Thus, these neurotoxins became widely used tools for investigating vesicular trafficking routes. Except for VAMP-1, VAMP-2, and Cellubrevin, no other member of the VAMP(More)
The clostridial neurotoxin family consists of tetanus neurotoxin and seven distinct botulinum neurotoxins which cause the diseases tetanus and botulism. The extreme potency of these toxins primarily relies not only on their ability to specifically enter motoneurons but also on the activity their catalytic domains display inside presynaptic motoneuronal(More)
Synaptophysin and synaptobrevin are abundant membrane proteins of neuronal small synaptic vesicles. In mature, differentiated neurons they form the synaptophysin/synaptobrevin (Syp/Syb) complex. Synaptobrevin also interacts with the plasma membrane-associated proteins syntaxin and SNAP25, thereby forming the SNARE complex necessary for exocytotic membrane(More)
Clostridial neurotoxins are the causative agents of the neuroparalytic disease botulism and tetanus. They block neurotransmitter release through specific proteolysis of one of the three soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) SNAP-25, syntaxin, and synaptobrevin, which constitute part of the synaptic vesicle fusion(More)
ECG recordings were made by means of a modified NELSON-lead system in a total of 100 children aged between 2 weeks and 59 months. Software developed by ourselves served for on-line calculations of the dipole moment D which is graphically represented by vector loops in three projection planes, horizontal, frontal and sagittal. In addition, the maximum(More)
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are highly potent bacterial proteins that block neurotransmitter release at the neuromuscular junction by cleaving SNAREs (soluble N-ethyl maleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptors). However, their serotype A (BoNT/A) that cleaves SNAP-25 (synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa) has also been an established(More)
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