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Medulloblastoma is an aggressively growing tumour, arising in the cerebellum or medulla/brain stem. It is the most common malignant brain tumour in children, and shows tremendous biological and clinical heterogeneity. Despite recent treatment advances, approximately 40% of children experience tumour recurrence, and 30% will die from their disease. Those who(More)
Medulloblastoma, a small blue cell malignancy of the cerebellum, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric oncology. Current mechanisms for clinical prognostication and stratification include clinical factors (age, presence of metastases, and extent of resection) as well as histological subgrouping (classic, desmoplastic, and large(More)
Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in childhood. Molecular studies from several groups around the world demonstrated that medulloblastoma is not one disease but comprises a collection of distinct molecular subgroups. However, all these studies reported on different numbers of subgroups. The current consensus is that there are only four(More)
Patients with relapsed malignant glioma have a poor prognosis. We developed a strategy of vaccination using autologous mature dendritic cells loaded with autologous tumour homogenate. In total, 12 patients with a median age of 36 years (range: 11-78) were treated. All had relapsing malignant glioma. After surgery, vaccines were given at weeks 1 and 3, and(More)
PURPOSE Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. Current treatment decisions are based on clinical variables. Novel tumor-derived biomarkers may improve the risk stratification of medulloblastoma patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS A model for the molecular risk stratification was proposed from an array-based comparative genomic(More)
BACKGROUND Pontine gliomas are the subgroup of brainstem gliomas with the worst prognosis. Controversial treatment approaches are discussed. PATIENTS AND METHODS Data of children with pontine gliomas treated in different prospective multi-center studies who were registered in the HIT-GBM database were pooled and analyzed addressing prognostic factors and(More)
Persons with Down syndrome (DS) uniquely have an increased frequency of leukemias but a decreased total frequency of solid tumors. The distribution and frequency of specific types of brain tumors have never been studied in DS. We evaluated the frequency of primary neural cell embryonal tumors and gliomas in a large international data set. The observed(More)
DNA Methylation Array Data Generation All tumour material was collected in accordance with research ethics board approval at the contributing centres. Four adult and four foetal cerebellar control samples were obtained from a commercial source (BioChain, USA). DNA methylation profiling using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array was(More)
Epigenetic alterations, that is, disruption of DNA methylation and chromatin architecture, are now acknowledged as a universal feature of tumorigenesis. Medulloblastoma, a clinically challenging, malignant childhood brain tumour, is no exception. Despite much progress from recent genomics studies, with recurrent changes identified in each of the four(More)
Medulloblastoma is a malignant brain tumor of childhood that comprises at least four molecularly distinct subgroups. We have previously described that cerebellar granule neuron precursors may give rise to the subgroup with a molecular fingerprint of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling. Other recent data indicate that precursor cells within the dorsal brain stem(More)