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The ectodomain of influenza A matrix protein 2 (M2e) is a candidate for a universal influenza A vaccine. We used recombinant Hepatitis B core antigen to produce virus-like particles presenting M2e (M2e-VLPs). We produced the VLPs with and without entrapped nucleic acids and compared their immunogenicity and protective efficacy. Immunization of BALB/c mice(More)
West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is endemic in Africa, the Middle East, Europe and the United States. There is currently no antiviral treatment or human vaccine available to treat or prevent WNV infection. DNA plasmid-based vaccines represent a new approach for controlling infectious diseases. In rodents, DNA vaccines have been(More)
The risk of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) introduction into Belgium remains high, and the presence of infected wildlife in Belgium is suspected. Domestic animals can serve as excellent sentinels for TBEV surveillance to install an early warning surveillance component for this emerging zoonotic disease of public health importance. In a targeted,(More)
The first pan-European harmonized active epidemiological surveillance program on honeybee colony mortality (EPILOBEE) was set up across 17 European Member States to estimate honeybee colony mortality over winter and during the beekeeping season. In nine Member States, overwinter losses were higher and statistically different from the empirical level of 10 %(More)
BACKGROUND The bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic presented homogeneity of the phenotype. This classical BSE (called C-type) was probably due to the contamination of the food chain by a single prion strain. However, due to the active surveillance and better techniques, two rare variants of BSE have been recently reported in different continents(More)
INTRODUCTION In order to investigate the role of roe deer in the maintenance and transmission of infectious animal and human diseases in Flanders, we conducted a serologic screening in 12 hunting areas. MATERIALS AND METHODS Roe deer sera collected between 2008 and 2013 (n=190) were examined for antibodies against 13 infectious agents, using indirect(More)
In sheep, susceptibility to scrapie is mainly determined by codons 136, 154, and 171 of the PRNP gene. Five haplotypes are usually present (ARR, ARQ, ARH, AHQ, and VRQ). The ARR haplotype confers the greatest resistance to classical scrapie while VRQ renders animals most susceptible. In 2004, the European Union implemented a breeding program that promotes(More)
Since the appearance in 1986 of epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), a new form of neurological disease in cattle which also affected human beings, many diagnostic and research activities have been performed to develop detection and therapeutic tools. A lot of progress was made in better identifying, understanding and controlling the spread(More)
The bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemics have led to active surveillance in Europe. Detection methods are focused on the obex, where prions fi rst accumulate in the central nervous system (CNS). Sampling is made with a calibrated syringe (from Bio-Rad or Idexx) that must sample a target area in the obex area. This study checked the precision of(More)
BACKGROUND For satisfactory Salmonella control, good biosecurity along the pork production chain is crucial, although additional control measures on-farm need to be considered. This study evaluated the effect of two potential control measures against the spread of Salmonella Typhimurium via a transmission experiment with 56 piglets (3-15 weeks of age): two(More)