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Information on statistical power is critical when planning investigations and evaluating empirical data, but actual power estimates are rarely presented in population genetic studies. We used computer simulations to assess and evaluate power when testing for genetic differentiation at multiple loci through combining test statistics or P values obtained by(More)
Noble crayfish (Astacus astacus L.), the most highly valued freshwater crayfish in Europe, is threatened due to a long-term population decline caused mainly by the spread of crayfish plague. Reintroduction of the noble crayfish into restored waters is a common practice but the geographic and genetic origin of stocking material has rarely been considered,(More)
The genetic relationships among 337 northern pike (Esox lucius) collected from the coastal zone of the central Baltic region and the Finnish islands of Aland were analysed using five microsatellite loci. Spatial structure was delineated using both traditional F-statistics and individually based approaches including spatial autocorrelation analysis. Our(More)
Previous studies have reported higher levels of divergence for microsatellites than for allozymes in several species, suggested to reflect stabilizing selection on the allozymes. We compared the differentiation patterns of 11 allozyme and nine microsatellite loci using 679 spawning Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) collected in the Baltic and North Seas to(More)
The pattern for distribution of genetic variation within and between populations is referred to as the genetic population structure of the species. To avoid depletion of genetic resources sustainable management should be based on knowledge of this structure. We discuss key aspects of genetic population structure in the context of identifying biological(More)
There is ample evidence that organisms adapt to their native environment when gene flow is restricted. However, evolution of plastic responses across discrete environments is less well examined. We studied divergence in means and plasticity across wild and hatchery populations of sea-run brown trout (Salmo trutta) in a common garden experiment with two(More)
The evolution of life-history traits is characterized by trade-offs between different selection pressures, as well as plasticity across environmental conditions. Yet, studies on local adaptation are often performed under artificial conditions, leaving two issues unexplored: (i) how consistent are laboratory inferred local adaptations under natural(More)
BACKGROUND Errors are a common problem in medicine and occur as a result of a complex process involving many contributing factors. Medical errors significantly reduce the safety margin for the patient and contribute additional costs in health care delivery. SYSTEM APPROACH In most cases adverse events cannot be attributed to a single underlying cause.(More)
Presence of sympatric populations may reflect local diversification or secondary contact of already distinct forms. The Baltic cisco (Coregonus albula) normally spawns in late autumn, but in a few lakes in Northern Europe sympatric autumn and spring- or winter-spawners have been described. So far, the evolutionary relationships and taxonomic status of these(More)
The genetic structure of nine wild, seven hatchery-reared, and one presumably mixed, sea trout (Salmo trutta L.) populations sampled from watersheds along the Swedish Baltic Sea coast was analysed using ten microsatellite loci. DNA-information was evaluated as a baseline for mixed stock analysis (MSA) and individual assignment (IA). A clear genetic(More)
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