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Heterotrimeric G proteins are key players in transmembrane signaling by coupling a huge variety of receptors to channel proteins, enzymes, and other effector molecules. Multiple subforms of G proteins together with receptors, effectors, and various regulatory proteins represent the components of a highly versatile signal transduction system. G(More)
Plexins are widely expressed transmembrane proteins that, in the nervous system, mediate repulsive signals of semaphorins. However, the molecular nature of plexin-mediated signal transduction remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that plexin-B family members associate through their C termini with the Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors(More)
The vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) is associated with actin filaments and focal adhesions, which form the interface between the cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix. VASP is phosphorylated by both the cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinases in a variety of cells, including platelets and smooth muscle cells. Since both the cAMP and cGMP(More)
Nicotinic acid (niacin), a vitamin of the B complex, has been used for almost 50 years as a lipid-lowering drug. The pharmacological effect of nicotinic acid requires doses that are much higher than those provided by a normal diet. Its primary action is to decrease lipolysis in adipose tissue by inhibiting hormone-sensitive triglyceride lipase. This(More)
The molecular mechanisms regulating secretion of the orexigenic-glucoregulatory hormone ghrelin remain unclear. Based on qPCR analysis of FACS-purified gastric ghrelin cells, highly expressed and enriched 7TM receptors were comprehensively identified and functionally characterized using in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo methods. Five Gαs-coupled receptors(More)
The expression of short-chain fatty acid receptors GPR41/FFAR3 and GPR43/ free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2) was studied in the gastrointestinal tract of transgenic monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP) reporter mice. In the stomach free fatty acid receptor 3 (FFAR3)-mRFP was expressed in a subpopulation of ghrelin and gastrin cells. In contrast, strong(More)
The G-protein-mediated signalling system has evolved as one of the most widely used transmembrane signalling mechanisms in mammalian organisms. All mammalian cells express G-protein-coupled receptors as well as several types of heterotrimeric G-proteins and effectors. G-protein-mediated signalling is involved in many physiological and pathological(More)
As a treatment for dyslipidemia, oral doses of 1-3 grams of nicotinic acid per day lower serum triglycerides, raise high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and reduce mortality from coronary heart disease (Tavintharan, S., and Kashyap, M. L. (2001) Curr. Atheroscler. Rep. 3, 74-82). These benefits likely result from the ability of nicotinic acid to inhibit(More)
Opioids are regarded to act via receptors interacting with heterotrimeric pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive G proteins. In membranes of SH-SY5Y cells, the mu-selective agonist [D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly5-ol]-enkephalin (DAGO) and the delta-selective agonist [D-Pen2,Pen5]-enkephalin (DPDPE) stimulated incorporation of the photoreactive GTP analog [alpha-32P]GTP(More)
Mice lacking the alpha-subunit of the heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide binding protein Gq (Galphaq) are viable but suffer from ataxia with typical signs of motor discoordination. The anatomy of the cerebellum is not overtly disturbed, and excitatory synaptic transmission from parallel fibers to cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) and from climbing fibers (CFs)(More)