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Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading indicator for liver disease. New treatment options are becoming available, and there is a need to characterize the epidemiology and disease burden of HCV. Data for prevalence, viremia, genotype, diagnosis and treatment were obtained through literature searches and expert consensus for 16 countries.(More)
OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of CYP2B6 polymorphisms (according to ethnicity) and the influence of heterozygosity and homozygosity on plasma concentrations of efavirenz and nevirapine. METHODS Following written informed consent, 225 Caucasians and 146 Blacks were recruited from the German Competence Network for(More)
We examined the feasibility of hepatitis C treatment in patients on opioid maintenance. One hundred patients with chronic hepatitis C, 50 on methadone maintenance, and 50 with no intravenous drug use or opioid maintenance for at least 5 years were prospectively matched for sex, age, hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype and HCV RNA. The primary end point was(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Therapy of chronic hepatitis B with HBV-polymerase inhibitors, in particular tenofovir or adefovir, may affect renal function. To assess renal function more accurately in the normal range, we used the recently validated, Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) formula to calculate the estimated glomerular filtration(More)
A cross-sectional study was conducted to compare patients treated with tenofovir with patients never treated with tenofovir. Patients on tenofovir showed a lower mean glomerular filtration rate estimated by creatinine clearance or cystatin C clearance compared with control patients. In total, 24 patients on tenofovir versus five control patients had(More)
The "D drug" HIV reverse-transcriptase inhibitors zalcitabine, didanosine, and stavudine are relatively strong inhibitors of polymerase-gamma compared with the "non-D drugs" zidovudine, lamivudine, and abacavir. D drugs deplete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in cultured hepatocytes. This mtDNA depletion is associated with an increased in vitro production of(More)
BACKGROUND  Interferon-based hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy is safe and effective among people receiving opioid substitution therapy (OST), but treatment uptake remains low. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of OST and drug use during therapy on completion, adherence, sustained virologic response (SVR12), and safety of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir ± ribavirin.(More)
HIV long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) maintaining high CD4(+) T-cell counts without antiretroviral therapy (ART) are divided into elite controllers (ECs) with undetectable and viremic controllers (VCs) with low viral loads. Little is known about the long-term changes of T-cell subsets and inflammation patterns in ECs versus VCs. The aim of the study was to(More)
The number of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections is projected to decline while those with advanced liver disease will increase. A modeling approach was used to forecast two treatment scenarios: (i) the impact of increased treatment efficacy while keeping the number of treated patients constant and (ii) increasing efficacy and treatment rate. This analysis(More)
Adefovir dipivoxil was recently approved for the treatment of wild-type and lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, a congender of adefovir that is used in the treatment of HIV infected patients, has recently been shown to also be effective in patients with lamivudine-resistant HBV infection. We therefore(More)