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The sphingomyelin pathway, initiated by hydrolysis of sphingomyelin to ceramide and stimulation of a Ser/Thr ceramide-activated protein (CAP) kinase, mediates tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 beta action. CAP kinase is membrane-bound and proline-directed, recognizing the minimal substrate motif Thr-Leu-Pro. TNF may use the(More)
Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand of the growth hormone (GH) secretagogue (GHS) receptor, stimulates GH release, appetite, and weight gain in humans and rodents. Synthetic GHSs modulate sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) and nocturnal hormone secretion. We studied the effect of 4 x 50 microg of ghrelin administered hourly as intravenous boluses between 2200 and(More)
Aging is associated with a dramatic decrease in slow wave sleep (SWS) and sleep consolidation. Previous studies revealed that various GABA(A) agonists and the GABA uptake inhibitor tiagabine augment slow frequency components in the EEG within non-REM sleep, and thus promote deep sleep in young individuals and/or rats. In the present double-blind,(More)
The cytokine interleukin (IL)-1 is a key mediator of the somnogenic response to immune challenge. In this vehicle-controlled study we evaluated circadian interference with the sleep-promoting effects of IL-1 beta. In two randomized experiments, rats were injected intracerebroventricularly with 5 ng IL-1 beta either at the beginning of the rest phase or at(More)
Aging is associated with dramatic reductions in sleep continuity and sleep intensity. Since gaboxadol, a selective GABA(A) receptor agonist, has been demonstrated to improve sleep consolidation and promote deep sleep, it may be an effective hypnotic, particularly for elderly patients with insomnia. In the present study, we investigated the effects of(More)
RATIONALE Previous studies demonstrated that gaboxadol, a selective GABA(A) agonist, increases both non-REM sleep and EEG delta activity within non-REM sleep in rats and slow wave sleep (SWS) as well as low-frequency activity in the EEG within non-REM sleep in healthy humans under normal conditions. OBJECTIVE Because the hypnotic actions of drugs may be(More)
The mechanism of interleukin-1 (IL-1) signaling is unknown. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha uses a signal transduction pathway that involves sphingomyelin hydrolysis to ceramide and stimulation of a ceramide-activated protein kinase. In intact EL4 thymoma cells, IL-1 beta similarly stimulated a rapid decrease of sphingomyelin and an elevation of ceramide, and(More)
Various studies indicate that exogenous melatonin has hypnotic properties in humans, which may be mediated by its influence on the circadian timing system or direct sleep-promoting actions, e.g. through a modulation of GABAergic transmission. The aim of the present placebo-controlled study was to examine the effects of melatonin on sleep in rats and the(More)
Aging is associated with a dramatic decrease in sleep intensity and continuity. The selective GABA(A) receptor agonist gaboxadol has been shown to increase non-REM sleep and the duration of the non-REM episodes in rats and sleep efficiency in young subjects and to enhance low-frequency activity in the electroencephalogram (EEG) within non-REM sleep in both(More)
Ghrelin is an endogenous ligand of the growth hormone (GH) secretagogue (GHS) receptor. It is hypothesised to play a key role in energy balance stimulating food intake and body weight. Besides GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin, it is thought to be a regulating factor of GH release. Ghrelin also appears to be involved in sleep regulation. We(More)