Stefan Lienenklaus

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Angiogenesis is a hallmark of malignant neoplasias, as the formation of new blood vessels is required for tumors to acquire oxygen and nutrients essential for their continued growth and metastasis. However, the signaling pathways leading to tumor vascularization are not fully understood. Here, using a transplantable mouse tumor model, we have demonstrated(More)
Mononuclear phagocytes are an important component of an innate immune system perceived as a system ready to react upon encounter of pathogens. Here, we show that in response to microbial stimulation, mononuclear phagocytes residing in nonmucosal lymphoid organs of germ-free mice failed to induce expression of a set of inflammatory response genes, including(More)
Beta interferon (IFN-β) is a major component of innate immunity in mammals, but information on the in vivo source of this cytokine after pathogen infection is still scarce. To identify the cell types responsible for IFN-β production during viral encephalitis, we used reporter mice that express firefly luciferase under the control of the IFN-β promoter and(More)
The nonstructural protein NS1 of influenza A virus counteracts the interferon (IFN) system and thereby promotes viral replication. NS1 has acquired different mechanisms to limit induction of IFN. It prevents double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and RIG-I-mediated activation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), and it blocks posttranscriptional processing of(More)
Dysfunction in Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), a central component of the DNA repair machinery, results in Ataxia Telangiectasia (AT), a cancer-prone disease with a variety of inflammatory manifestations. By analyzing AT patient samples and Atm(-/-) mice, we found that unrepaired DNA lesions induce type I interferons (IFNs), resulting in enhanced(More)
Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS), a hereditary autoimmune disease, clinically and biochemically overlaps with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and, like SLE, is characterized by spontaneous type I interferon (IFN) production. The finding that defects of intracellular nucleases cause AGS led to the concept that intracellular accumulation of nucleic acids(More)
BACKGROUND Several facultative anaerobic bacteria with potential therapeutic abilities are known to preferentially colonize solid tumors after systemic administration. How they efficiently find and invade the tumors is still unclear. However, this is an important issue to be clarified when bacteria should be tailored for application in cancer therapy. (More)
BACKGROUND Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are among the first-line sentinels for immune detection and responsiveness to pathogens. The TLR2 subfamily of TLRs (TLR1, TLR2, TLR6) form heterodimers with each other and are thus able to recognize a broad range of components from several microbes such as yeast, Gram-positive bacteria and protozoa. Until now, TLR2(More)
IL-1, IL-18 and LPS are recognized by specific receptor complexes of the Toll/IL-1R family, characterized by a common intracellular domain indispensable for downstream signaling. Upon ligand binding, these receptors activate the central MyD88-IRAK-TRAF6 signaling module, resulting in the activation of NF-kappaB. Ligated receptors also induce activation of(More)
Interferon-beta (IFN-β) is a pleiotropic cytokine that is known to modulate the immune response in multiple sclerosis (MS), an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Spontaneous remyelination and repair mechanisms in MS are mostly insufficient and contribute to clinical disability. Here, we investigated whether IFN-β has a(More)