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BACKGROUND Clinical benefits of thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA) are partly ascribed to thoracic sympathetic block. However, data regarding sympathetic activity during TEA are scarce and contradictory. This prospective, randomized, double-blind study evaluated the segmental propagation of sympathetic block after low-concentration, high-volume TEA using(More)
Fentanyl is an opioid initially developed for parenteral administration. While oral administration is not an option due to a high first-pass metabolism, its high potency and lipophilicity have made a number of new routes of administration feasible. The transdermal therapeutic system offers an excellent option for long-term treatment of cancer and chronic(More)
The goal of this work is to derive four-voice music pieces from given musical plans, which describe the harmonic flow and the intentions of a desired composition. We developed the experimentation platform COMPOzE for intention-based composition. COMPOzE is based on constraint programming over finite domains of integers. We argue that constraint programming(More)
Microcirculatory dysfunction contributes significantly to tissue hypoxia and multiple organ failure in sepsis. Ischemia of the gut and intestinal hypoxia are especially relevant for the evolution of sepsis because the mucosal barrier function may be impaired, leading to translocation of bacteria and toxins. Because sympathetic blockade enhances intestinal(More)
BACKGROUND Acute pancreatitis has been linked to intestinal barrier dysfunction and systemic inflammatory response with high mortality. Thoracic epidural analgesia improves intestinal perfusion. The authors hypothesized that thoracic epidural analgesia influences microcirculation injury, inflammatory response, and outcome of acute pancreatitis in rats. (More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Sevoflurane has been shown to distinctly reduce bronchial mucus transport velocity, an essential determinant of mucociliary clearance and pulmonary complications. However, sevoflurane is regarded as one of the least irritant volatile anaesthetics, especially when compared with desflurane. Hence, the aim of this double-blind,(More)
INTRODUCTION Liver dysfunction is a common feature of severe sepsis and is associated with a poor outcome. Both liver perfusion and hepatic inflammatory response in sepsis might be affected by sympathetic nerve activity. However, the effects of thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA), which is associated with regional sympathetic block, on septic liver injury(More)
BACKGROUND Thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA) protects the intestinal microcirculation and improves perioperative outcomes. TEA also reduces mortality in acute experimental pancreatitis. Its impact on hepatic microcirculation, however, in health and critical illness is unknown. Therefore, the authors studied the effect of TEA on the liver in healthy rats(More)
OBJECTIVE This study assessed modulation of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) in isolated perfused rat lungs during sepsis induced by cecal ligation and perforation (CLP) at different times and its relationship to nitric oxide synthases (NOS). DESIGN AND SETTING Prospective controlled trial in a university research laboratory. SUBJECTS 102 male(More)
INTRODUCTION Increasing evidence indicates that epidural anesthesia improves postoperative pulmonary function. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain to be determined. Because pulmonary nitric oxide has been identified to play a critical role in pulmonary dysfunction in sepsis, we hypothesized that thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA) modulates(More)