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Seventy-nine cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors were measured by protein array analysis in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with meningitis and controls. Several factors were found to be regulated, which have not been studied in the CNS before, e.g., macrophage inflammatory protein-1delta (CCL15) and neutrophil-activating peptide-2 (CXCL7). In(More)
BACKGROUND Bacterial meningitis is rarely complicated by acute spinal cord involvement (eg, myelitis, ischemic infarction, spinal abscess, or epidural hemorrhage). In spinal cord dysfunction, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the imaging modality of choice. Still, MRI findings of myelitis due to bacterial meningitis in adults have not been reported. (More)
Using protein expression profiling, the authors identified an upregulation of the chemokine B lymphocyte chemoattractant (BLC) in the CSF of patients with neuroborreliosis but not in patients with noninflammatory and various other inflammatory neurologic diseases. This upregulation was confirmed by ELISA, showing increased BLC levels in every(More)
OBJECTIVE To study reactive nitrogen species-mediated oxidative brain damage and antioxidant defenses in patients with acute bacterial meningitis. METHODS Nitrotyrosine (a widely used marker for the formation of reactive nitrogen species, such as peroxynitrite) and the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal were detected by immunohistochemistry in(More)
The new CX(3)C-chemokine fractalkine (CX(3)CL1) was measured by Western blot in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum of patients with inflammatory diseases of the peripheral and central nervous system (Bell's palsy, BP; Guillain-Barré Syndrome, GBS; multiple sclerosis, MS; viral meningitis, VM; bacterial meningitis, BM) and patients with noninflammatory(More)
We report on a 33-year-old woman with carcinomatous meningitis due to carcinoma of the breast who developed multiple cerebral infarctions within four days after intrathecal chemotherapy with methotrexate. MR angiography revealed a narrowing of basal cerebral arteries, which is consistent with vasculopathy. The vasculopathy was probably due to carcinomatous(More)
Studies on the incidence and spectrum of complications and prognostic factors in adults with pneumococcal meningitis are scarce. Therefore, we analysed 87 consecutive cases who were treated in our department between 1984 and 2002. Meningitis-associated intracranial complications developed in 74.7% and systemic complications in 37.9% of cases. Diffuse brain(More)
Monocytes respond to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation with a rapid expression of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) gene. Upon repeated LPS stimulation there is, however, little production of TNF mRNA and protein; i.e., the cells are tolerant to LPS. Analysis of NF-kappaB proteins in gel shift assays demonstrated that the DNA binding activity that is(More)
BACKGROUND The chemokine CXCL13 is known to dictate homing and motility of B cells in lymphoid tissue and has been implicated in the formation of ectopic lymphoid tissue in chronic inflammation. Whether it influences B cell trafficking during acute infection, is largely unclear. In previous studies, we showed that (I) CXCL13 levels are markedly increased in(More)
BACKGROUND The urokinase plasminogen activator system has the potency to promote leukocyte recruitment and blood-CSF barrier breakdown, and thus may play an important pathophysiologic role in bacterial meningitis. METHODS CSF and serum concentrations of urokinase-plasminogen activator (urokinase [uPA]), uPA receptor (uPAR), and PA inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were(More)