Stefan Kastenbauer

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Studies on the incidence and spectrum of complications and prognostic factors in adults with pneumococcal meningitis are scarce. Therefore, we analysed 87 consecutive cases who were treated in our department between 1984 and 2002. Meningitis-associated intracranial complications developed in 74.7% and systemic complications in 37.9% of cases. Diffuse brain(More)
Using protein expression profiling, the authors identified an upregulation of the chemokine B lymphocyte chemoattractant (BLC) in the CSF of patients with neuroborreliosis but not in patients with noninflammatory and various other inflammatory neurologic diseases. This upregulation was confirmed by ELISA, showing increased BLC levels in every(More)
The chemokine CXCL13 is known to dictate homing and motility of B cells in lymphoid tissue and has been implicated in the formation of ectopic lymphoid tissue in chronic inflammation. Whether it influences B cell trafficking during acute infection, is largely unclear. In previous studies, we showed that (I) CXCL13 levels are markedly increased in the B(More)
Seventy-nine cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors were measured by protein array analysis in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with meningitis and controls. Several factors were found to be regulated, which have not been studied in the CNS before, e.g., macrophage inflammatory protein-1delta (CCL15) and neutrophil-activating peptide-2 (CXCL7). In(More)
The new CX(3)C-chemokine fractalkine (CX(3)CL1) was measured by Western blot in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum of patients with inflammatory diseases of the peripheral and central nervous system (Bell's palsy, BP; Guillain-Barré Syndrome, GBS; multiple sclerosis, MS; viral meningitis, VM; bacterial meningitis, BM) and patients with noninflammatory(More)
The aim of the study was to determine the differential expression of nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) isoforms and the pathophysiologic relevance of inducible NOS (iNOS) in experimental pneumococcal meningitis. By use of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting, increased brain mRNA and increased(More)
Urate is largely excluded from the brain under non-inflammatory conditions (concentration gradient serum:CSF about 10:1), but increases markedly in Guillain-Barré Syndrome and bacterial meningitis. The oxidation product allantoin is normally not passively distributed between blood and cerebrospinal fluid (gradient 3:1) and increases 5-fold in CSF of(More)
In patients with acute bacterial meningitis, hearing loss can be transient but is often permanent. The mechanisms underlying meningitis-associated hearing loss are not fully understood. Therefore, we investigated the morphological correlates of hearing loss in a rat model of pneumococcal meningitis. Transcutaneous intracisternal injection of Streptococcus(More)
Monocytes respond to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation with a rapid expression of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) gene. Upon repeated LPS stimulation there is, however, little production of TNF mRNA and protein; i.e., the cells are tolerant to LPS. Analysis of NF-kappaB proteins in gel shift assays demonstrated that the DNA binding activity that is(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis. However, the role of NO produced by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) in meningitis is still unclear. We investigated the influence of eNOS depletion on the inflammatory host response, intracranial complications, and outcome in experimental pneumococcal meningitis. Leukocyte(More)