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Seventy-nine cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors were measured by protein array analysis in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with meningitis and controls. Several factors were found to be regulated, which have not been studied in the CNS before, e.g., macrophage inflammatory protein-1delta (CCL15) and neutrophil-activating peptide-2 (CXCL7). In(More)
The chemokine CXCL13 is known to dictate homing and motility of B cells in lymphoid tissue and has been implicated in the formation of ectopic lymphoid tissue in chronic inflammation. Whether it influences B cell trafficking during acute infection, is largely unclear. In previous studies, we showed that (I) CXCL13 levels are markedly increased in the B(More)
Using protein expression profiling, the authors identified an upregulation of the chemokine B lymphocyte chemoattractant (BLC) in the CSF of patients with neuroborreliosis but not in patients with noninflammatory and various other inflammatory neurologic diseases. This upregulation was confirmed by ELISA, showing increased BLC levels in every(More)
Monocytes respond to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation with a rapid expression of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) gene. Upon repeated LPS stimulation there is, however, little production of TNF mRNA and protein; i.e., the cells are tolerant to LPS. Analysis of NF-kappaB proteins in gel shift assays demonstrated that the DNA binding activity that is(More)
Studies on the incidence and spectrum of complications and prognostic factors in adults with pneumococcal meningitis are scarce. Therefore, we analysed 87 consecutive cases who were treated in our department between 1984 and 2002. Meningitis-associated intracranial complications developed in 74.7% and systemic complications in 37.9% of cases. Diffuse brain(More)
This study investigated the role of peroxynitrite in an adult rat model of pneumococcal meningitis. Immunohistochemically, nitrotyrosine residues, as a marker for peroxynitrite formation, were detected perivascularly and in proximity to inflammatory cells in the subarachnoid space. Nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity was colocalized with blood-brain barrier(More)
OBJECTIVE To study reactive nitrogen species-mediated oxidative brain damage and antioxidant defenses in patients with acute bacterial meningitis. METHODS Nitrotyrosine (a widely used marker for the formation of reactive nitrogen species, such as peroxynitrite) and the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal were detected by immunohistochemistry in(More)
BACKGROUND The urokinase plasminogen activator system has the potency to promote leukocyte recruitment and blood-CSF barrier breakdown, and thus may play an important pathophysiologic role in bacterial meningitis. METHODS CSF and serum concentrations of urokinase-plasminogen activator (urokinase [uPA]), uPA receptor (uPAR), and PA inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were(More)
The aim of the study was to determine the differential expression of nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) isoforms and the pathophysiologic relevance of inducible NOS (iNOS) in experimental pneumococcal meningitis. By use of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting, increased brain mRNA and increased(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis. However, the role of NO produced by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) in meningitis is still unclear. We investigated the influence of eNOS depletion on the inflammatory host response, intracranial complications, and outcome in experimental pneumococcal meningitis. Leukocyte(More)