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BACKGROUND Tinnitus has been shown to respond to modulations of cortical activity by high-frequency and low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). OBJECTIVE To determine the tinnitus-attenuating effects of a 2-week daily regimen of rTMS, navigated to the maximum of tinnitus-related increase in regional cerebral blood flow. (More)
Recent data suggest that chronic tinnitus is a "phantom auditory perception" caused by maladaptive neuroplasticity and subsequent hyperactivity in an extended neuronal network including the primary auditory cortex, higher-order association areas, and parts of the limbic system. It was suggested that attenuation of this tinnitus-associated hyperactivity may(More)
Hearing loss from occupational and leisure noise numbers amongst the most frequent causes of an acquired sensorineural hearing loss. Here we present a review of up-to-date findings on the pathophysiology of acoustic injury to the inner ear, with special attention being paid to its molecular-biological and genetic aspects. Epidemiological aspects shall also(More)
As more and more substances have been shown in preclinical studies to be capable of preventing damage to the inner ear from exposure to noise, ototoxic drugs, ischemia, infection, inflammation, mechanical trauma and other insults, it is becoming very important to develop feasible and safe methods for the targeted delivery of drugs to specific regions in the(More)
Intratympanic (IT) delivery of drugs to the ear is increasingly used for both clinical and research purposes. One limitation of IT delivery is that drugs are rapidly lost from the middle ear by a number of processes, so that prolonged delivery of drug is technically difficult. In the present study, the delivery characteristics of a poloxamer hydrogel(More)
CONCLUSION According to the presented data, speech-in-noise intelligibility (SI) does not correlate with olivocochlear efferent activity - as measured by contralateral suppression (CS) of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) in humans with normal auditory threshold. OBJECTIVES Literature data indicate a possible role of the medial(More)
Tuning curves, spontaneous activity, and rate-intensity (RI) functions were obtained from units in the chick cochlear nerve. The characteristic frequency (CF) was determined from each tuning curve. The shape of each RI function was subjectively evaluated and assigned to one of four RI types. The breakpoint, discharge rate at the highest SPLs, and slopes of(More)
Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) are routinely used in audiological diagnostics. When the stimulus frequencies f1 and f2 are varied in small steps, distinct non-monotonicities (peaks and valleys) in DPOAE level versus frequency functions can be observed. This so-called DPOAE fine structure (FS) is supposed to be the result of physiological(More)
Perilymph pharmacokinetics was investigated by a novel approach, in which solutions containing drug or marker were injected from a pipette sealed into the perilymphatic space of the lateral semi-circular canal (LSCC). The cochlear aqueduct provides the outlet for fluid flow so this procedure allows almost the entire perilymph to be exchanged. After wait(More)
HYPOTHESIS To determine whether intracochlearly applied dexamethasone will lead to better control of drug levels, higher peak concentrations, and lower base-to-apex concentration gradients in the scala tympani (ST) of the guinea pig than after intratympanic (round window [RW]) application. BACKGROUND Local application of drugs to the RW results in(More)