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Radio astronomy is known for its very large telescope dishes, but is currently making a transition towards the use of large numbers of small elements. For example, the Low Frequency Array, commissioned in 2010, uses about 50 stations, each consisting of at least 96 low band antennas and 768 high band antennas. For the Square Kilometre Array, planned for… (More)
The problem of estimating the direction-independent gain and phase characteristics of sensor arrays requires a boundary condition to solve the phase ambiguity of the solution. It has become common practice to use the constraint that the phase of the first element of the array is zero. By Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) analysis, we show analytically for… (More)
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Calibration of a sensor array is more involved if the antennas have direction dependent gains and multiple calibrator sources are simultaneously present. We study this case for a sensor array with arbitrary geometry but identical elements, i.e., elements with the same direction dependent gain pattern. A weighted alternating least squares (WALS) algorithm is… (More)
Instruments for radio astronomical observations have come a long way. While the first telescopes were based on very large dishes and two-antenna interferometers, current Instruments consist of dozens of steerable dishes, whereas future instruments will be even larger distributed sensor arrays with a hierarchy of phased array elements. For such arrays to… (More)
In radio astronomy, cosmic sources are observed which are many orders of magnitude weaker than the telescope system noise level. The necessary sensitivity is achieved by large telescope collecting areas, long integration times, and large bandwidths. In the coming two decades, telescopes are planned which are even one to two orders of magnitude more… (More)
For next-generation radio telescopes such as the Square Kilometre Array, seemingly minor changes in scientific constraints can easily push computing requirements into the exascale domain. The authors propose a model for engineers and astronomers to understand these relations and make tradeoffs in future instrument designs.
The fidelity of radio astronomical images is generally assessed by practical experience, i.e., using rules of thumb, although some aspects and cases have been treated rigorously. In this paper, we present a mathematical framework capable of describing the fundamental limits of radio astronomical imaging problems. Although the data model assumes a single… (More)
The nature of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) at energies >10(20) eV remains a mystery. They are likely to be of extragalactic origin, but should be absorbed within approximately 50 Mpc through interactions with the cosmic microwave background. As there are no sufficiently powerful accelerators within this distance from the Galaxy, explanations for… (More)