Stefan H. I. Kappe

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There are still approximately 500 million cases of malaria and 1 million deaths from malaria each year. Yet recently, malaria incidence has been dramatically reduced in some parts of Africa by increasing deployment of anti-mosquito measures and new artemisinin-containing treatments, prompting renewed calls for global eradication. However, treatment and(More)
Most Apicomplexan parasites, including the human pathogens Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, and Cryptosporidium, actively invade host cells and display gliding motility, both actions powered by parasite microfilaments. In Plasmodium sporozoites, thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP), a member of a group of Apicomplexan transmembrane proteins that have(More)
While subunit vaccines have shown partial efficacy in clinical trials, radiation-attenuated sporozoites (RAS) remain the "gold standard" for sterilizing protection against Plasmodium infection in human vaccinees. The variability in immunogenicity and replication introduced by the extensive, random DNA damage necessary to generate RAS could be overcome by(More)
Malaria infection starts when sporozoites are transmitted to the mammalian host during a mosquito bite. Sporozoites enter the blood circulation, reach the liver, and infect hepatocytes. The formation of a parasitophorous vacuole (PV) establishes their intracellular niche. Recently, two members of the 6-Cys domain protein family, P52 and P36, were each shown(More)
For 50 years since their discovery, the malaria parasite liver stages (LS) have been difficult to analyze, impeding their utilization as a critical target for antiinfection vaccines and drugs. We have undertaken a comprehensive transcriptome analysis in combination with a proteomic survey of LS. Green fluorescent protein-tagged Plasmodium yoelii (PyGFP) was(More)
Apicomplexan host cell invasion and gliding motility depend on the parasite's actomyosin system located beneath the plasma membrane of invasive stages. Myosin A (MyoA), a class XIV unconventional myosin, is the motor protein. A model has been proposed to explain how the actomyosin motor operates but little is known about the components, topology and(More)
Irradiation-attenuated sporozoite vaccinations confer sterile protection against malaria infection in animal models and humans. Persistent, nonreplicating parasite forms in the liver are presumably necessary for the maintenance of sterile immunity. A novel vaccine approach uses genetically attenuated parasites (GAPs) that undergo arrested development during(More)
Plasmodium undergoes one round of multiplication in the liver prior to invading erythrocytes and initiating the symptomatic blood phase of the malaria infection. Productive hepatocyte infection by sporozoites leads to the generation of thousands of merozoites capable of erythrocyte invasion. Merozoites are released from infected hepatocytes as merosomes,(More)
Falciparum malaria is initiated when Anopheles mosquitoes transmit the Plasmodium sporozoite stage during a blood meal. Irradiated sporozoites confer sterile protection against subsequent malaria infection in animal models and humans. This level of protection is unmatched by current recombinant malaria vaccines. However, the live-attenuated vaccine approach(More)
Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease that is transmitted by inoculation of the Plasmodium parasite sporozoite stage. Sporozoites invade hepatocytes, transform into liver stages, and subsequent liver-stage development ultimately results in release of pathogenic merozoites. Liver stages of the parasite are a prime target for malaria vaccines because they can(More)