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Elastic elements in prosthetic devices can help to reduce peak power (PP) and energy requirements (ER) for the actuators. Calculations showed that it is impossible with current commercial motor technology to mimic human ankle behavior in detail for higher walking and running speeds with single motor solutions using a Serial Elastic Actuator (SEA).(More)
Surface topography and light scattering were measured on 15 samples ranging from those having smooth surfaces to others with ground surfaces. The measurement techniques included an atomic force microscope, mechanical and optical profilers, confocal laser scanning microscope, angle-resolved scattering, and total scattering. The samples included polished and(More)
The realization of ultra low-loss dielectric reflection gratings with diffraction efficiencies between 7% and 0.02% is presented. By placing the grating beneath the highly reflective layerstack scattering was significantly reduced. This concept allows the all-reflective coupling of high laser radiation to high finesse cavities, thereby circumventing thermal(More)
An instrumentation for total and angle-resolved scattering (ARS) at 193 and 157 nm has been developed at the Fraunhofer Institute in Jena to meet the severe requirements for scattering analysis of deep- and vacuum-ultraviolet optical components. Extremely low backscattering levels of 10(-6) for the total scattering measurements and more than 9 orders of(More)
An instrument for total backscattering and forward-scattering measurements of optical coating components at 157 and 193 nm is described. The system is operated in both vacuum and nitrogen purge gas. An excimer laser as well as a deuterium lamp can be used as a radiation source. Suppression of the background signal level to 1 part in 10(6) permits(More)
An international round-robin experiment has been conducted among laboratories in different countries to test the measurement and the data-analysis procedures in the International Organization for Standardization draft standard ISO/DIS 13696 for measuring total scattering from low-scatter laser optics. Ten laboratories measured total backscattering from(More)
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