Stefan G. Dressler

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The second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) is sexually differentiated (lower in men than in women), a likely biomarker for organizational (permanent) effects of prenatal testosterone, and a correlate of many sex-dependent, hormonally influenced traits and phenotypes. The extent of 2D:4D measurement repeatability across different research groups is unknown.(More)
The second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait (men tend to have lower values than women) and a likely biomarker for the organizational (permanent) effects of prenatal androgens on the human brain and body. Prenatal testosterone, as reflected by 2D:4D, has many extragenital effects, including its relevance for the formation of an(More)
The second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) is sexually dimorphic in humans, such that men on average have a lower 2D:4D than women. This somatic trait has been proposed as a biomarker for the organizational (permanent) effects of prenatal testosterone on the brain and behavior. Over the past few years, an accumulating research program has shown 2D:4D to be(More)
Research particularly focusing on male athletes and popular sports (running and soccer) suggests associations of lower (masculinized) second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D), a putative marker of prenatal androgen action, with better sports performance. Studies focusing on women, non-mainstream sports, or controlling for covariates relevant for sporting(More)
Familial resemblance in the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D), a proxy for prenatal androgen action, was studied in 1,260 individuals from 235 Austrian families. In agreement with findings from twin studies of 2D:4D, heritability estimates based on parent-child and full-sib dyad similarity indicated substantial genetic contributions to trait expression(More)
The second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) presents an anatomical sex difference in humans. On average, men tend to have lower 2D:4D compared with women. There is fairly strong evidence for a role of the 2D:4D ratio as a biomarker for the organizational (permanent) effects of prenatal testosterone on the brain and behaviour. Recently, an accumulating research(More)
The second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D), putatively indexing prenatal androgen levels retrospectively, has become increasingly popular as an easily applied measure in research into the prenatal sex-hormonal bases of behavior, health, and disease. However, its validity has not yet been conclusively demonstrated and in fact is currently debated, because(More)
Second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D), a widely studied putative marker for masculinization through prenatal androgen exposure, is lower (more masculinized) in athletes than in general population controls, and athletes with lower 2D:4D have higher sporting success. Occupations differ markedly in perceived masculinity and actual maleness (sex ratios), but(More)
Over the past decade, the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D), a putative biomarker for the organizational (permanent) effects of prenatal androgens on the human brain, body, and behavior, has received extensive research attention in psychology. This account makes more widely accessible the contributions of the German psychologist, Hans-Dieter Rösler, an(More)