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The second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) is sexually dimorphic in humans, such that men on average have a lower 2D:4D than women. This somatic trait has been proposed as a biomarker for the organizational (permanent) effects of prenatal testosterone on the brain and behavior. Over the past few years, an accumulating research program has shown 2D:4D to be(More)
The second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D), putatively indexing prenatal androgen levels retrospectively, has become increasingly popular as an easily applied measure in research into the prenatal sex-hormonal bases of behavior, health, and disease. However, its validity has not yet been conclusively demonstrated and in fact is currently debated, because(More)
The second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait (men tend to have lower values than women) and a likely biomarker for the organizational (permanent) effects of prenatal androgens on the human brain and body. Prenatal testosterone, as reflected by 2D:4D, has many extragenital effects, including its relevance for the formation of an(More)
The second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) presents an anatomical sex difference in humans. On average, men tend to have lower 2D:4D compared with women. There is fairly strong evidence for a role of the 2D:4D ratio as a biomarker for the organizational (permanent) effects of prenatal testosterone on the brain and behaviour. Recently, an accumulating research(More)
Research particularly focusing on male athletes and popular sports (running and soccer) suggests associations of lower (masculinized) second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D), a putative marker of prenatal androgen action, with better sports performance. Studies focusing on women, non-mainstream sports, or controlling for covariates relevant for sporting(More)
Second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D), a widely studied putative marker for masculinization through prenatal androgen exposure, is lower (more masculinized) in athletes than in general population controls, and athletes with lower 2D:4D have higher sporting success. Occupations differ markedly in perceived masculinity and actual maleness (sex ratios), but(More)
We used decision-making experiments to investigate tax compliance of women and men and focused on gender-role orientation as well as on the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D), a putative marker of prenatal testosterone exposure. In 60 experimental periods, participants were endowed with a certain amount of money representing income and had to pay taxes.(More)
Sexually differentiated digit ratios of the hand (2D:4D and other) are currently widely studied, owing to their presumed role as a retrospective diagnostic window into prenatal androgen action. This study was only the second one (following McFadden & Shubel, 2002) to examine all 6 possible finger-length ratios (excluding the thumb) and all 10 possible(More)