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This study deals with dissipative losses of critical materials between the life-cycle stages of manufacturing and end-of-life. Following the EU definition for critical materials, a screening of dissipative losses for the respective materials has been performed based on existing data and the most significant data gaps have been identified. Furthermore, a(More)
Metal mobilization in general, as well as the number of metals used in products to increase performance and provide sometimes unique functionalities, has increased steadily in the past decades. Materials, such as indium, gallium, platinum group metals (PGM), and rare earths (RE), are used ever more frequently in high-tech applications and their criticality(More)
Climate changes, incidents like nuclear disasters, and associated political objectives call for significant changes to the current energy system. Despite these far-reaching transformation processes, within the intended changes security of supply and precautions against the possible consequences of climate change must be ensured. Consequently, the question(More)
This paper reviews the most relevant works that have investigated robustness in power grids using Complex Networks (CN) concepts. In this broad field there are two different approaches. The first one is based solely on topological concepts, and uses metrics such as mean path length, clustering coefficient, efficiency and betweenness centrality, among many(More)
This paper proposes a novel approach to analyze the impacts of cyber layer failures (i.e., protection failures and monitoring failures) on the reliability evaluation of composite power systems. The reliability and availability of the cyber layer and its protection and monitoring functions with various topologies are derived based on a reliability block(More)
The transition of our current energy system from a fossil-based system to a system based on renewables is likely to be one of the most complex and long-term societal transitions in history. The need for a fundamental system transformation raises the question of how to measure the continuing progress and the resilience of this process over time. This paper(More)
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