Stefan Frost

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The fundamentally diverse vertebrate pigment cells, melanophores, xanthophores, and iridophores, contain pigmentary organelles known, respectively, as melanosomes, pterinosomes, and reflecting platelets. Their pigments are mealanins pteridines, and purines. Mosaic pigment cells containing more than one type of organelle have been observed and mosaic(More)
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been developed over the past years as promising anticancer therapeutics. The conjugation of tumor specific mAbs with cytotoxic molecules has been shown to improve their efficacy dramatically. These bifunctional immunotoxins, consisting of covalently linked antibodies and protein toxins, possess considerable potential in(More)
Type III secretion system mediated secretion and translocation of Yop-effector proteins across the eukaryotic target cell membrane by pathogenic Yersinia is highly organized and is dependent on a switching event from secretion of early structural substrates to late effector substrates (Yops). Substrate switching can be mimicked in vitro by modulating the(More)
The melanoid mutant in the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) is analysed with respect to the differentiation of pigment cells. Pigment cells were observed with the transmission electron microscope in order to determine any unusual structural characteristics and to determine what happens to each of the cell types as development proceeds. Chemical(More)
The morphological changes that occur during metamorphosis in the palates of two types of anuran larvae (a discoglossid, Bombina orientalis, and a pipid, Xenopus laevis) are compared. In B. orientalis the structural changes are accompanied by the ciliation of the palate epithelium. Ciliation begins in the anterior region of the palate and continues in a(More)
For selective killing of tumor cells, there are many novel and promising therapeutic approaches like immunotoxins. However, on the long way to clinical application, especially in vitro approved biologicals often fail due to loss of target sensitivity and efficacy in vivo. This is mostly explained with degradation or penetration disability in vivo. Although,(More)
The enzyme, xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH), has been examined in Ambystoma tigrinum nebulosum with respect to its role in pigmentation. It now seems probable that the melanoid gene (m) either codes directly for XDH or is somehow intimately connected with the normal function of this enzyme. Inhibition of XDH using the drug, allopurinol, results in animals(More)
A biochemical and transmission electron microscopic description of the wild-type pigment phenotype in developing Mexican axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum) is presented. There are three pigment cell types found in adult axolotl skin - melanophores, xanthophores and iridophores. Both pigments and pigment cells undergo specific developmental changes in axolotls.(More)
Guanosine is shown to dramatically alter the pigment phenotype of axolotls by suppressing melanization and enhancing the biosynthesis and deposition of purine-derived pigments. Phenotypic changes caused by guanosine are manifested by altered chromatophore differentiation patterns such that few black pigment cells (melanophores) differentiate (and those that(More)
The white mutant of the Mexican axolotl, A. mexicanum, involves an ectodermal defect which prevents melanophore colonization. Endogenous lectins have been suggested to function in neural crest-derived melanophore adhesion in other animals. To determine if differences in endogenous lectins exist in dark and white axolotls during melanophore colonization,(More)