Stefan Frank

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Recent studies have shown that defined sets of transcription factors can directly reprogram differentiated somatic cells to a different differentiated cell type without passing through a pluripotent state, but the restricted proliferative and lineage potential of the resulting cells limits the scope of their potential applications. Here we show that a(More)
Recent in situ hybridization studies had demonstrated a strong increase in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA expression in the hyperproliferative epithelium during wound healing. To determine potential mediators of VEGF induction during this process, we analyzed the regulation of VEGF expression in cultured human keratinocytes. We found a large(More)
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can exit the self-renewal programme, through the action of signalling molecules, at any given time and differentiate along the three germ layer lineages. We have systematically investigated the specific roles of three signalling pathways, TGFβ/SMAD2, BMP/SMAD1, and FGF/ERK, in promoting the transition of hESCs into the(More)
Chemokines are seen as the stimuli that largely control leukocyte migration. To assess whether the severely impaired process of cutaneous repair observed in genetically diabetic db/db mice is associated with a dysregulated infiltration of immune cells, we determined the expressional kinetics for the murine growth-regulated oncogene/melanoma growth(More)
The discovery of endothelium-derived relaxing factor and its identification as nitric oxide (NO) was one of the most exciting discoveries of biomedical research in the 1980s. Besides its potent vasodilatory effects, NO was found under certain circumstances to be responsible for the killing of microorganisms and tumour cells by activated macrophages and to(More)
BACKGROUND Expression and enzymatic activity of heme oxygenase (HO) has been implicated in the development, as well as in the resolution, of inflammatory conditions. Because inflammation is central to tissue repair, we investigated the presence and potential functions of HO in an excisional model of normal and diabetes-impaired wound repair in mice. (More)
A series of studies has shown that application of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) to a wound has a beneficial effect, especially in animals with wound healing disorders. In this study we have investigated the regulation of TGF-beta1, beta2, and beta3 and their receptors during the repair process. We found a large induction of all three TGF-beta(More)
Intense proteolysis of cytoskeletal proteins occurs in brain within minutes of transient ischemia, possibly because of the activation of calcium-sensitive proteases (calpains). This proteolytic event precedes overt signs of neuronal degeneration, is most pronounced in regions of selective neuronal vulnerability, and could have significant consequences for(More)
Whether the wound macrophage is a key regulatory inflammatory cell type in skin repair has been a matter of debate. A transgenic mouse model mediating inducible macrophage depletion during skin repair has not been used to date to address this question. Here, we specifically rendered the monocyte/macrophage leukocyte lineage sensitive to diphtheria toxin by(More)
Wound-healing disorders are a therapeutic problem of extensive clinical importance. Leptin-deficient ob/ob mice are characterized by a severely delayed wound healing that has been explained by the mild diabetic phenotype of these animals. Here we demonstrate that systemically and topically supplemented leptin improved re-epithelialization of wounds in ob/ob(More)