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Recent studies have shown that defined sets of transcription factors can directly reprogram differentiated somatic cells to a different differentiated cell type without passing through a pluripotent state, but the restricted proliferative and lineage potential of the resulting cells limits the scope of their potential applications. Here we show that a(More)
Recent in situ hybridization studies had demonstrated a strong increase in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA expression in the hyperproliferative epithelium during wound healing. To determine potential mediators of VEGF induction during this process, we analyzed the regulation of VEGF expression in cultured human keratinocytes. We found a large(More)
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can exit the self-renewal programme, through the action of signalling molecules, at any given time and differentiate along the three germ layer lineages. We have systematically investigated the specific roles of three signalling pathways, TGFβ/SMAD2, BMP/SMAD1, and FGF/ERK, in promoting the transition of hESCs into the(More)
Recently, we demonstrated a large induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) during cutaneous wound repair. In this study, we established an in vivo model in mice to investigate the role of NO during the wound healing process. During excisional repair, mice were treated with L-N6-(1-iminoethyl)lysine (L-NIL), a selective inhibitor of iNOS enzymatic(More)
In this study, we investigated the role of leptin for the inflammatory response in diabetes-impaired skin repair. We demonstrated, that systemic treatment of diabetic ob/ob mice with leptin blunted polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN), but not macrophage influx into the wound site. Closed wounds of leptin-administered mice were characterized by tremendous(More)
Recent studies have demonstrated an induction of expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase that is associated with several inflammatory diseases of the skin. To define the mechanisms of action of nitric oxide (NO) in the skin, we attempted to identify genes that are regulated by NO in keratinocytes. Using the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT as a(More)
Chemokines are seen as the stimuli that largely control leukocyte migration. To assess whether the severely impaired process of cutaneous repair observed in genetically diabetic db/db mice is associated with a dysregulated infiltration of immune cells, we determined the expressional kinetics for the murine growth-regulated oncogene/melanoma growth(More)
A series of studies has shown that application of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) to a wound has a beneficial effect, especially in animals with wound healing disorders. In this study we have investigated the regulation of TGF-beta1, beta2, and beta3 and their receptors during the repair process. We found a large induction of all three TGF-beta(More)
Wound-healing disorders are a therapeutic problem of extensive clinical importance. Leptin-deficient ob/ob mice are characterized by a severely delayed wound healing that has been explained by the mild diabetic phenotype of these animals. Here we demonstrate that systemically and topically supplemented leptin improved re-epithelialization of wounds in ob/ob(More)
Intense proteolysis of cytoskeletal proteins occurs in brain within minutes of transient ischemia, possibly because of the activation of calcium-sensitive proteases (calpains). This proteolytic event precedes overt signs of neuronal degeneration, is most pronounced in regions of selective neuronal vulnerability, and could have significant consequences for(More)