Stefan F Martin

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Allergies to nickel (Ni(2+)) are the most frequent cause of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) in industrialized countries. The efficient development of CHS requires both a T lymphocyte-specific signal and a proinflammatory signal. Here we show that Ni(2+) triggered an inflammatory response by directly activating human Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4).(More)
Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is one of the most prevalent occupational skin diseases and causes severe and long-lasting health problems in the case of chronification. It is initiated by an innate inflammatory immune response to skin contact with low molecular weight chemicals that results in the priming of chemical-specific, skin-homing CD8(+) Tc1/Tc17(More)
Development of contact allergy requires cooperation of adaptive and innate immunity. Ni(2+) stimulates innate immunity via TLR4/MD2, the bacterial LPS receptor. This likely involves receptor dimerization, but direct proof is pending and it is unclear if related haptens share this mechanism. We reveal Co(2+) as second metal stimulating TLR4 and confirm(More)
BACKGROUND Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) represents a severe health problem with increasing worldwide prevalence. It is a T cell-mediated skin disease induced by protein-reactive organic and inorganic chemicals. A key feature of contact allergens is their ability to trigger an innate immune response that leads to skin inflammation. Previous evidence(More)
Sensitization to contact allergens requires activation of the innate immune system by endogenous danger signals. However, the mechanisms through which contact allergens activate innate signaling pathways are incompletely understood. In this study, we demonstrate that mice lacking the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) receptor P2X(7) are resistant to contact(More)
DNA replication, similar to other cellular processes, occurs within dynamic macromolecular structures. Any comprehensive understanding ultimately requires quantitative data to establish and test models of genome duplication. We used two different super-resolution light microscopy techniques to directly measure and compare the size and numbers of replication(More)
BACKGROUND Extracellular ATP contributes to the pathogenesis of asthma via signalling at purinergic receptors. However, the precise purinergic receptors subtypes mediating the pro-asthmatic effects of ATP have not been identified, yet. METHODS In vivo studies were performed using the OVA-alum model. Functional expression of the P2Y(2) purinergic receptor(More)
T cells are imprinted to express tissue-specific homing receptors upon activation in tissue-draining lymph nodes, resulting in their migration to the site of Ag entry. Expression of gut-homing molecules alpha(4)beta(7) and CCR9 is induced by retinoic acid, a vitamin A metabolite produced by retinal dehydrogenases, which are specifically expressed in(More)
Modification of proteins by reactive small chemicals is a key step in the activation of chemical-specific T cells in allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). However, an integrated approach to characterize both the precise nature of chemically modified proteins and the chemical-specific T cells is currently lacking. Here, we analyze the molecular conditions for(More)
The success of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation is limited by acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), a severe complication accompanied by high mortality rates. Yet, the molecular mechanisms initiating this disease remain poorly defined. In this study, we show that, after conditioning therapy, intestinal commensal bacteria and the(More)