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One of the defining features of plants is a body plan based on the physical properties of cell walls. Structural analyses of the polysaccharide components, combined with high-resolution imaging, have provided the basis for much of the current understanding of cell walls. The application of genetic methods has begun to provide new insights into how walls are(More)
Sulfate-reducing bacteria play major roles in the global carbon and sulfur cycles, but it remains unclear how reducing sulfate yields energy. To determine the genetic basis of energy conservation, we measured the fitness of thousands of pooled mutants of Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20 during growth in 12 different combinations of electron donors and(More)
We carried out a comprehensive analysis of the phenolic compounds in hydrolysate produced by dilute acid pretreatment of 20 potential lignocellulosic biofuel feedstocks, including grasses, hardwoods and softwood, and agaves. We find that the phenolic fraction is dominated by Hibbert's ketones, most of which had not so far been characterized in hydrolysate.(More)
The secondary cell wall in higher plants consists mainly of cellulose, lignin, and xylan and is the major component of biomass in many species. The Arabidopsis thaliana irregular xylem8 (irx8) mutant is dwarfed and has a significant reduction in secondary cell wall thickness. IRX8 belongs to a subgroup of glycosyltransferase family 8 called the(More)
The efficient production of biofuels from cellulosic feedstocks will require the efficient fermentation of the sugars in hydrolyzed plant material. Unfortunately, plant hydrolysates also contain many compounds that inhibit microbial growth and fermentation. We used DNA-barcoded mutant libraries to identify genes that are important for hydrolysate tolerance(More)
A new procedure has been developed for the isolation of wild-type and mutant Arabidopsis trichomes. The isolated trichomes maintained enzymatic activity and were used for DNA, protein, and RNA isolation. The RNA was used to generate probes suitable for Affymetrix analysis. The validity of the Affymetrix results was confirmed by quantitative PCR analysis on(More)
A novel dissimilatory perchlorate-reducing bacterium (DPRB), Arcobacter sp. strain CAB, was isolated from a marina in Berkeley, CA. Phylogenetically, this halophile was most closely related to Arcobacter defluvii strain SW30-2 and Arcobacter ellisii. With acetate as the electron donor, strain CAB completely reduced perchlorate (ClO4(-)) or chlorate(More)
UNLABELLED The pathways involved in aromatic compound oxidation under perchlorate and chlorate [collectively known as (per)chlorate]-reducing conditions are poorly understood. Previous studies suggest that these are oxygenase-dependent pathways involving O2 biogenically produced during (per)chlorate respiration. Recently, we described Sedimenticola(More)