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The deposition mode ice nucleation efficiency of various dust aerosols was investigated at cirrus cloud temperatures between 196 K and 223 K using the aerosol chamber facility AIDA (Aerosol Interaction and Dynamics in the Atmosphere). Arizona test dust (ATD) as a reference material and two dust samples from the Takla Makan desert in 5 Asia (AD1) and Sahara(More)
Laboratory measurements support a cirrus cloud formation pathway involving heterogeneous ice nucleation by solid ammonium sulfate aerosols. Ice formation occurs at low ice-saturation ratios consistent with the formation of continental cirrus and an interhemispheric asymmetry observed for cloud onset. In a climate model, this mechanism provides a widespread(More)
The ice nucleation activities of five different Pseu-domonas syringae, Pseudomonas viridiflava and Erwinia herbicola bacterial species and of Snomax™ were investigated in the temperature range between −5 and −15 • C. Water suspensions of these bacteria were directly sprayed into the cloud chamber of the AIDA facility of Forschungszen-trum Karlsruhe at a(More)
We investigate hydrometeor habits at the AIDA chamber with a newly developed in-line holographic microscope HOLographic Imager for Microscopic Objects (HOLIMO). Sizes and habits of ice crystals and droplets in a mixed-phase cloud experiment are related to relative humidity with respect to ice (RH(ice)), temperature (T), and experiment time. This experiment(More)
Tooth gliding occurs frequently both in the opening (55.9%) and closing (60.5%) chewing strokes. The average glide length was 1 mm. Good occlusions could not be distinguished from poor occlusion on the basis of frequency and length of gliding contacts. The greater the component of lateral movement during the closing stroke, the greater the probability that(More)
The imaging unit of the novel cloud particle instrument Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering (PHIPS) probe has been developed to image individual ice particles produced inside a large cloud chamber. The PHIPS produces images of single airborne ice crystals, illuminated with white light of an ultrafast flash-lamp, which are captured at a maximum(More)
Complex refractive indices for supercooled sulfuric acid solution droplets in the mid-infrared spectral regime (wavenumber range 6000-800 cm(-1)) have been retrieved for acid concentrations ranging from 33 to 10 wt % H2SO4 at temperatures between 235 and 230 K, from 36 to 15 wt % H2SO4 at temperatures between 225 and 219 K, and from 37 to 20 wt % H2SO4 at(More)
The AIDA (Aerosol Interactions and Dynamics in the Atmosphere) aerosol and cloud chamber of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe can be used to test the ice forming ability of aerosols. The AIDA chamber is extensively instrumented including pressure, temperature and humidity sensors, and optical particle counters. Expansion cooling using 5 mechanical pumps leads to(More)
Purpose: Complete mesocolic excision for right sided colon cancer is a complex operation that might offer a survival benefit. However, studies comparing CME to standard surgery have not been published so far. Methods: One-hundred-seven patients were operated at the discretion of the surgeon either according to principles of complete mesocolic excision(More)