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Double-stranded ribonucleic acid (dsRNA) serves as a danger signal associated with viral infection and leads to stimulation of innate immune cells. In contrast, the immunostimulatory potential of single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) is poorly understood and innate immune receptors for ssRNA are unknown. We report that guanosine (G)- and uridine (U)-rich ssRNA(More)
To facilitate analysis of plant cell wall polysaccharide structure and composition, we cloned 74 genes encoding polysaccharide-degrading enzymes from Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Neurospora crassa and expressed the genes as secreted proteins with C-terminal Myc and 6x His tags. Most of the recombinant enzymes were active in enzyme(More)
One of the defining features of plants is a body plan based on the physical properties of cell walls. Structural analyses of the polysaccharide components, combined with high-resolution imaging, have provided the basis for much of the current understanding of cell walls. The application of genetic methods has begun to provide new insights into how walls are(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLR) recognize bacterial and viral components, but direct interaction of receptor and ligand is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that TLR9 binds directly and sequence-specifically to single-stranded unmethylated CpG-DNA containing a phosphodiester backbone. TLR9-CpG-DNA interaction occurs at the acidic pH (6.5-5.0) found in endosomes and(More)
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the production of autoantibodies to certain cellular macromolecules, such as the small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs), which had been considered to be passive targets of the autoimmune response. SLE is also characterized by the increased expression of type I(More)
The secondary cell wall in higher plants consists mainly of cellulose, lignin, and xylan and is the major component of biomass in many species. The Arabidopsis thaliana irregular xylem8 (irx8) mutant is dwarfed and has a significant reduction in secondary cell wall thickness. IRX8 belongs to a subgroup of glycosyltransferase family 8 called the(More)
Type I IFN production in response to the DNA virus herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) is essential in controlling viral replication. We investigated whether plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) were the major tissue source of IFN-alpha, and whether the production of IFN-alpha in response to HSV-1 depended on Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). Total spleen cells or(More)
Recognition by innate immune cells of the pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMP) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria and bacterial CpG-DNA depends on Toll-like receptor4 (TLR4) and TLR9, respectively. To define differences in the response to these distinct PAMP we compared a key intracellular event, namely recruitment of myeloid(More)
Loxoribine (7-allyl-7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-guanosine) acts as synthetic adjuvant in anti-tumor responses. Here we first demonstrate that loxoribine activates cells of the innate immune system selectively via the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7/MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. TLR7- and MyD88-deficient immune cells fail to proliferate or produce cytokines in(More)