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Migration of neurons from proliferative zones to their functional sites is fundamental to the normal development of the central nervous system. Mice homozygous for the spontaneous rostral cerebellar malformation mutation (rcm(s)) or a newly identified transgenic insertion allele (rcm(tg)) exhibit cerebellar and midbrain defects, apparently as a result of(More)
This review encompasses the most important advances in liver functions and hepatotoxicity and analyzes which mechanisms can be studied in vitro. In a complex architecture of nested, zonated lobules, the liver consists of approximately 80 % hepatocytes and 20 % non-parenchymal cells, the latter being involved in a secondary phase that may dramatically(More)
The homeobox transcription factor Nanog has been proposed to play a crucial role in the maintenance of the undifferentiated state of murine embryonic stem cells. A human counterpart, NANOG, has been identified, but its function and localization have not hitherto been described. We have used a combination of RNA interference and quantitative real-time(More)
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have great potential as a source of cells for therapeutic uses, but their culture requires the support of mouse or human cells, either directly as a feeder cell layer or indirectly as a source of conditioned medium in feeder-free culture systems. Unfortunately, the risks of cross-transfer of pathogens from xenogeneic or(More)
Mutation of the Unc5h3 (formally known as rcm) gene has important consequences on neuronal migration during cerebellar development. Unc5h3 transcripts are expressed early (embryonic day 8.5) in the hindbrain region and later in the cerebellar primordia. In Unc5h3 mutant embryos, both the development and initial migration of Purkinje cell progenitors occur(More)
Migrating axons require the correct presentation of guidance molecules, often at multiple choice points, to find their target. Netrin 1, a bifunctional cue involved in both attracting and repelling axons, is involved in many cell migration and axon pathfinding processes in the CNS. The netrin 1 receptor DCC and its Caenorhabditis elegans homolog UNC-40 have(More)
Pluripotent stem cell lines can be induced to differentiate into a range of somatic cell types in response to various stimuli. Such cell-based systems provide powerful tools for the investigation of molecules that modulate cellular development. For instance, the formation of the nervous system is a highly regulated process, controlled by molecular pathways(More)
Research in mammalian cell biology often relies on developing in vitro models to enable the growth of cells in the laboratory to investigate a specific biological mechanism or process under different test conditions. The quality of such models and how they represent the behavior of cells in real tissues plays a critical role in the value of the data(More)
Embryonal carcinoma (EC) stem cells derived from germ cell tumours are valuable tools for the study of embryogenesis and closely resemble embryonic stem cells. When human TERA2.cl.SP12 EC cells are exposed to retinoic acid and grown as adherent monolayers, approximately 10-15% of cells commit toward becoming neurons whilst the remainder of cells produce(More)
The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) has enormous potential for the development of patient-specific regenerative medicine. Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) are able to defend their genomic integrity by maintaining low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through a combination of enhanced removal capacity and limited production of(More)