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Migration of neurons from proliferative zones to their functional sites is fundamental to the normal development of the central nervous system. Mice homozygous for the spontaneous rostral cerebellar malformation mutation (rcm(s)) or a newly identified transgenic insertion allele (rcm(tg)) exhibit cerebellar and midbrain defects, apparently as a result of(More)
This review encompasses the most important advances in liver functions and hepatotoxicity and analyzes which mechanisms can be studied in vitro. In a complex architecture of nested, zonated lobules, the liver consists of approximately 80 % hepatocytes and 20 % non-parenchymal cells, the latter being involved in a secondary phase that may dramatically(More)
Mutation of the Unc5h3 (formally known as rcm) gene has important consequences on neuronal migration during cerebellar development. Unc5h3 transcripts are expressed early (embryonic day 8.5) in the hindbrain region and later in the cerebellar primordia. In Unc5h3 mutant embryos, both the development and initial migration of Purkinje cell progenitors occur(More)
Migrating axons require the correct presentation of guidance molecules, often at multiple choice points, to find their target. Netrin 1, a bifunctional cue involved in both attracting and repelling axons, is involved in many cell migration and axon pathfinding processes in the CNS. The netrin 1 receptor DCC and its Caenorhabditis elegans homolog UNC-40 have(More)
Research in mammalian cell biology often relies on developing in vitro models to enable the growth of cells in the laboratory to investigate a specific biological mechanism or process under different test conditions. The quality of such models and how they represent the behavior of cells in real tissues plays a critical role in the value of the data(More)
BACKGROUND Exciting preliminary work indicates an increase in progenitor activity in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus of people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared to that of controls. We examine progenitor activity in the other main progenitor niche, the subventricular zone (SVZ), as well as potential associations with key pathological and(More)
Mutations in the Unc5h3 gene, a receptor for the netrin 1 ligand, result in abnormal migrations of both Purkinje and granule cells to regions outside the cerebellum and of granule cells to regions within the cerebellum. Because both Purkinje and granule cells express this molecule, we sought to determine whether one or both of these cell types are the(More)
The developmental regulation of tubulin and several of its posttranslational modifications was examined during the differentiation of rat cerebellar granule cells in vitro. In particular, we have noted that the glutamylation of alpha- and beta-tubulin subunits varies during development and becomes more prominent in differentiating neuronal processes. These(More)
Embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells provide a caricature of pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells and may be used as surrogates for investigating the mechanisms that regulate cell differentiation during embryonic development. NTERA-2 is a human EC cell line that differentiates in response to retinoic acid yielding cells that include terminally differentiated(More)
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are attractive candidates for use in regenerative medicine since they are easily accessible and can be readily expanded in vivo, and possess unique immunogenic properties. Moreover, these multipotent cells display intriguing environmental adaptability and secretory capacity. The ability of MSCs to migrate(More)