Steen Hammerum

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The mass spectral fragmentation of a number of 17alpha-hydroxy-, 17alpha-acetoxy-, and 17alpha-methoxyprogesterones have been examined. Unlike other steroidal delta4-3-ketones, fragmentation reactions associated with the alpha,beta-unsaturated ketonic function are not particularly significant; rather, abundant ions are formed by decomposition processes(More)
The enhanced reactivity of α-nucleophiles, which contain an electron lone pair adjacent to the reactive site, has been demonstrated in solution and in the gas phase and, recently, for the gas-phase S(N)2 reactions of the microsolvated HOO(-)(H2O) ion with methyl chloride. In the present work, we continue to explore the significance of microsolvation on the(More)
The α-effect, an enhanced reactivity of nucleophiles with a lone-pair adjacent to the reaction center, has been studied in solution for several decades. The gas-phase α-effect has recently been documented in studies of SN2 reactions as well as in competing reactions for both bare and microhydrated anions. In the present work we extend our studies of the(More)
The structural, vibrational, and energetic properties of adducts of alkanes and strong cationic proton donors were studied with composite ab initio calculations. Hydrogen bonding in D-H(+)...H-alkyl adducts contributes to a significant degree to the interactions between the two components, which is substantiated by NBO and AIM results. The hydrogen bonds(More)
The reduction of 2-chloro-N-phenylpropanamide with LiAlH(4) has been re-examined. In contrast to previous findings, we obtain in almost equal quantities two amines from this reaction, namely N-propylaniline and the rearranged product N-isopropylaniline. 2-Methyl-N-phenylaziridine is an intermediate in the reduction and can be isolated from reactions with(More)
The retro-ene reaction is a common reaction of metastable immonium ions, leading to the expulsion of an alkene molecule. The kinetic energy release that accompanies this reaction decreases with alkyl substitution on the γ-carbon of the immonium ion. A number of authors have taken this result to indicate that the retro-ene reaction proceeds in a(More)
A pronounced isotope effect causes metastable CD3CHOHCH(CH3)2+* ions to expell C3H6D2 in preference to C3H7D in a ratio of approximately 33:1; a number of related compounds show similar effects. High-level ab initio calculations suggest that the reactant alcohol molecular ion possesses an extraordinarily long alpha-carbon-carbon bond and that the reaction(More)
The intramolecular hydrogen atom abstraction by the nitrogen atom in isolated aliphatic amine radical cations is examined experimentally and with composite high-level ab initio methods of the G3 family. The magnitude of the enthalpy barriers toward H-atom transfer varies with the shape and size of the cyclic transition state and with the degree of(More)
The metastable molecular ions of primary aliphatic amines branched at C2 can isomerize by cleavage-recombination, thereby facilitating fragmentation reactions that require less energy than simple cleavage of the initial molecular ion. This process complements the reactions described by Audier to account for the conspicuous absence of the conventional(More)
The conformations of an acyclic, achiral enamide thymidine analogue 1 have been studied by model building and geometry calculations, as well as by NMR NOE and UV experiments. The results indicate that there are no significant barriers to rotation around any of the sigma bonds, in particular the N1-C1' enamide bond, and that the analogue should be able to(More)