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NADPH oxidases are a family of enzymes that generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). The NOX1 (NADPH oxidase 1) and NOX2 oxidases are the major sources of ROS in the artery wall in conditions such as hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes and ageing, and so they are important contributors to the oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and vascular(More)
Cerebral infarct volume is typically smaller in premenopausal females than in age-matched males after ischemic stroke, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study we provide evidence in mice that this gender difference only occurs when the ischemic brain is reperfused. The limited tissue salvage achieved by reperfusion in male mice is(More)
Influenza A virus pandemics and emerging anti-viral resistance highlight the urgent need for novel generic pharmacological strategies that reduce both viral replication and lung inflammation. We investigated whether the primary enzymatic source of inflammatory cell ROS (reactive oxygen species), Nox2-containing NADPH oxidase, is a novel pharmacological(More)
Until the 1970s, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were considered merely harmful by-products of aerobic respiration and the driving force behind the evolution of an array of cellular antioxidant enzymes with the purpose of rapidly metabolising ROS to minimise their oxidising effects. However, the perception that ROS are only harmful to cells has since been(More)
Endothelial cell injury and the loss of cytoprotective mechanisms that involve nitric oxide, prostacyclin and endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization (EDH) are thought to underlie atherosclerosis, although how these mechanisms are anti-atherogenic is unclear. This is particularly so because thrombus formation, one of the major initiators of the disease,(More)
All methods used for quantitation of superoxide have limitations when it comes to differentiating between extracellular and intracellular sites of superoxide production. In the present study, we monitored dihydroethidium (DHE)-derived fluorescence at 570 nm, which indicates hydroxyethidium derived from reaction with superoxide produced by human leukemia(More)
Proliferation and apoptosis of endothelial cells are crucial angiogenic processes that contribute to carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Emerging evidence implicates the regulation of proliferation and apoptosis by reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). In the present study, we investigated the roles of the(More)
Influenza A viral infections claim millions of lives worldwide and continue to impose a major burden on healthcare systems. Current pharmacological strategies to control influenza A virus-induced lung disease are problematic owing to antiviral resistance and the requirement for strain-specific vaccination. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS),(More)
The Nox family NADPH oxidases are reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating enzymes that are strongly implicated in atherogenesis. However, no studies have examined which Nox isoform(s) are involved. Here we investigated the role of the Nox2-containing NADPH oxidase in atherogenesis in apolipoprotein E-null (ApoE(-/-)) mice. Wild-type (C57Bl6/J), ApoE(-/-),(More)
SIGNIFICANCE Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and peroxynitrite are generated ubiquitously by all mammalian cells and have been understood for many decades as inflicting cell damage and as causing cancer by oxidation and nitration of macromolecules, including DNA, RNA, proteins, and lipids. RECENT ADVANCES A current(More)