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Morphological alterations of mitochondria may be related to metabolic and energy deficiency in neurons in Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. Mitochondrial dysfunction is also a hallmark of beta peptide induced neuronal toxicity in Alzheimer's disease. A general change in glucose utilization, increased oxidative stress, and Ca;{2+}(More)
Alzheimer's disease is one of the main causes of cognitive impairment in the presenium and senium. Despite increased efforts in investigations of the aetiological background of the disease, most of the pathogenetic mechanisms remain unclear. From the morphological point of view, neurofibrillary degeneration and neuritic plaques, the main hallmarks of(More)
Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of irreversible dementia, affecting mostly the presenile and senile age, shaping a tragic profile in the epilogue of the life of the suffering people. Due to the severity and the social impact of the disease an ongoing research activity is in climax nowadays, associated with many legal, social, ethical,(More)
Substance P was infused in the lateral ventricles of twenty Lewis rats for twenty days. The animals under the influence of the substance P demonstrated grooming of the head, the body and the forepaws. On the twentieth day the animals were sacrificed and the cerebellar cortex was processed for electron microscopy. The ultrastructural analysis revealed that(More)
BACKGROUND It is believed that in Alzheimer's disease (AD) some areas of the brain are particularly vulnerable to specific degenerative processes and that they could exhibit neuronal dysfunction in the earliest stage of the disease. The implications of the hippocampus in memory processes are very well known and it is likely that the hippocampus would be(More)
The role of chronic inflammation in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been implied in a plethora of studies. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the immune alterations and the immunological markers in patients suffering from AD. IL-1alpha, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-alpha cytokine and helper/inducer (CD4),(More)
Dendritic pathology and decrease of dendritic spine density are prominent phenomena in early cases of Alzheimer's disease, which correlate significantly with the progressive decline of the mental faculties. In previous studies we have described the pathological alterations of the dendrites and the dendritic spines in the prefrontal area of the cortex and(More)
Although the etiopathological background of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is mostly associated with the deposition of Αβ-peptide, the hyperphosphorylation of τ protein, the synaptic pathology and the mitochondrial alterations, the vascular factor may play substantial role in plotting the multifactorial pattern of the disease. We attempted to study the blood(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disorder of myelin destruction. Blood-brain-barrier (BBB) disruption precedes pathological or clinical findings and could involve mediators from perivascular brain mast cells, such as histamine and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Mast cells could be activated by many triggers, including acute stress that(More)
The climbing fibres originating from the inferior olivary nucleus act as a powerful excitation on the Purkinje cells of the cerebellar cortex that may play a substantial role in the motor performances and the learning of new motor skills. In vascular dementia the existent vascular alterations may induce many hypoxic or ischemic phenomena, among the others,(More)