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BACKGROUND Cannabinoid use could potentially alter HIV RNA levels by two mechanisms: immune modulation or cannabinoid-protease inhibitor interactions (because both share cytochrome P-450 metabolic pathways). OBJECTIVE To determine the short-term effects of smoked marijuana on the viral load in HIV-infected patients. DESIGN Randomized,(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES The use of cannabinoids for appetite stimulation and the management of wasting and antiretroviral side-effects has become a common practice in the care of HIV-infected individuals. We present pharmacokinetic data from a randomized placebo-controlled study designed to evaluate the metabolic effects of smoked marijuana and dronabinol(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether integrating family planning services into HIV care is associated with increased use of more effective contraceptive methods (sterilization, intrauterine device, implant, injectable or oral contraceptives). DESIGN Cluster-randomized trial. SETTING Eighteen public HIV clinics in Nyanza Province, Kenya. PARTICIPANTS Women(More)
We assessed risk of transmission among 4,016 HIV-infected patients in primary care, including men who have sex with men (MSM, n = 2,109), women (n = 1,104) and men who had sex with women (MSW, n = 803) in clinics in 15 cities across the U.S. A transmission risk act, assessed by computer assisted interviews, was defined as unprotected vaginal or anal sex(More)
There are few studies of HIV risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM) in sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted a behavioral survey of MSM in peri-urban “township” communities in Gauteng province, South Africa. Between October 2004 and March 2005, 199 MSM completed an interviewer administered pen-and-paper standardized questionnaire. The sample was 94%(More)
BACKGROUND Nyanza Province, Kenya, had the highest HIV prevalence in the country at 14.9% in 2007, more than twice the national HIV prevalence of 7.1%. Only 16% of HIV-infected adults in the country accurately knew their HIV status. Targeted strategies to reach and test individuals are urgently needed to curb the HIV epidemic. The family unit is one(More)
Cannabinoids, including smoked marijuana and delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (dronabinol, Marinol), have been used to treat human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV)-associated anorexia and weight loss. Concerns have been raised, however, that these compounds might have adverse effects on the immune system of subjects with HIV infection. To determine whether(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between home life risk factors and suicide attempts among homeless and runaway street youth recruited from both shelters and street locations in Denver, CO; New York City; and San Francisco, CA. METHOD Street youth 12-19 years old (N = 775) were recruited by street outreach staff in Denver, New York City and San(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the extent to which HIV-infected patients, including those with advanced immunodeficiency, can reverse peripheral CD4 T-cell depletion while maintaining long-term viral suppression on highly active antiretroviral therapy. DESIGN Cohort study. PARTICIPANTS Four-hundred and twenty-three HIV-infected patients who initiated HAART(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine factors that explain the effect of a cognitive-behavioral intervention on reductions in HIV transmission risk among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). METHOD Of the 1910 HIV-infected MSM screened, 616 participants considered to be at risk of transmitting HIV were randomized to a 15-session, individually delivered(More)