Stanley W Halvorsen

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Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with the accumulation of oxidative damage has been implicated in neurodegenerative disease and in the degradation of nervous system function with age. Here we report that ROS inhibit the activity of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) in nerve cells. Treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) as a generator of ROS(More)
Chick ciliary ganglion neurons have nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) that mediate synaptic transmission through the ganglion. A cAMP-dependent process has previously been shown to enhance the ACh response of the neurons 2- to 3-fold without requiring the synthesis of new receptors. We show here that the receptors can be phosphorylated in situ by a(More)
Cadmium is an environmental contaminant producing numerous pathological effects including neurological disorders. The mechanisms through which cadmium produces neurotoxicities are not completely known. We found that divalent cadmium (CdCl2) inhibited ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF)-mediated Jak1 and Jak2 tyrosine kinase signaling in human BE(2)-C(More)
Atria isolated from 4-day chick embryos were much less responsive to the negative chronotropic effect of muscarinic agonists than were atria from 5- or 8-day embryos, even though the density of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) was similar at all these ages. The mAChR in hearts from 4-day embryos were also significantly less susceptible to(More)
An alpha-neurotoxin, Bgt 3.1, that reversibly blocks the ACh response of chick ciliary ganglion neurons has been used to identify 2 classes of high-affinity binding sites on the cells in culture. The first class appears to be the alpha-bungarotoxin binding site on the neurons. The second class of Bgt 3.1 sites is distinct from the alpha-bungarotoxin binding(More)
Many cytokines mediate their effects through Jak/STAT signaling pathways providing many opportunities for cross-talk between different cytokines. We examined the interaction between two cytokine families, gp130-related cytokines and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), which are coexpressed in the nervous system during acute trauma and pathological conditions.(More)
An alpha-neurotoxin, Bgt 3.1, has previously been shown to recognize the functional acetylcholine receptor (AChR) on chick autonomic neurons, since it specifically blocks receptor function and it binds to a class of sites on the neurons with the pharmacology, kinetics, and affinity expected for the receptor. A monoclonal antibody, mAb 35, to the main(More)
Chick ciliary ganglion neurons have a cholinergic membrane component that binds alpha-bungarotoxin with high affinity but has no known function. The component is different from the nicotinic ACh receptor on the neurons that mediates cholinergic transmission through the ganglion. Ciliary neuronotrophic factor (CNTF) has been shown to enhance the survival of(More)
Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a member of the neurokine family of cytokines with actions on multiple cell types of the nervous system. CNTF shares a common gp130 receptor subunit with the other neurokines, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), interleukin‐6 (IL‐6), interleukin‐11 (IL‐11), cardiotrophin‐1 (CT‐1), oncostatin‐M (OSM), cardiotrophin‐like(More)
Cadmium, mercury and rotenone are environmental pollutants whose neurotoxic mechanisms are not fully understood. We have shown previously that exposure of nerve cells to these agents produces oxidative stress which reversibly blocks growth factor and cytokine-mediated Janus kinase (Jak)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling. Here(More)