Stanley W Halvorsen

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Chick ciliary ganglion neurons have a cholinergic membrane component that binds alpha-bungarotoxin with high affinity but has no known function. The component is different from the nicotinic ACh receptor on the neurons that mediates cholinergic transmission through the ganglion. Ciliary neuronotrophic factor (CNTF) has been shown to enhance the survival of(More)
Cadmium, mercury and rotenone are environmental pollutants whose neurotoxic mechanisms are not fully understood. We have shown previously that exposure of nerve cells to these agents produces oxidative stress which reversibly blocks growth factor and cytokine-mediated Janus kinase (Jak)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling. Here(More)
Retinoic acid is an important developmental factor in the heart and nervous system and regulates the expression of trophic factor receptors in neural cell lines. Here we show the effects of retinoic acid on cytokine responsiveness in embryonic chick neurons and myocytes. Treatment of cultured cardiomyocytes and retinal and ciliary ganglion neurons with(More)
Chick ciliary ganglion neurons have nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) that mediate synaptic transmission through the ganglion. A soluble component of about 50 kDa from embryonic eye tissue, the synaptic target of the ganglion, increases the development of ACh sensitivity by the neurons 10-fold over a 1-week period in culture. The increased(More)
An alpha-neurotoxin, Bgt 3.1, has previously been shown to recognize the functional acetylcholine receptor (AChR) on chick autonomic neurons, since it specifically blocks receptor function and it binds to a class of sites on the neurons with the pharmacology, kinetics, and affinity expected for the receptor. A monoclonal antibody, mAb 35, to the main(More)
Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with the accumulation of oxidative damage has been implicated in neurodegenerative disease and in the degradation of nervous system function with age. Here we report that ROS inhibit the activity of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) in nerve cells. Treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) as a generator of ROS(More)
An alpha-neurotoxin, Bgt 3.1, that reversibly blocks the ACh response of chick ciliary ganglion neurons has been used to identify 2 classes of high-affinity binding sites on the cells in culture. The first class appears to be the alpha-bungarotoxin binding site on the neurons. The second class of Bgt 3.1 sites is distinct from the alpha-bungarotoxin binding(More)
Nicotinic ACh receptors were immunoaffinity-purified from chick ciliary ganglia, radioiodinated, and examined by SDS-PAGE. Components with Mr's of 49, 52, and 60 kDa were obtained. Limited proteolysis produced different peptide maps from the components, confirming the 3 as distinct species. All are glycoproteins since treatment with glycopeptidase F altered(More)
We have used the chick embryonic heart to study the regulation of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor in vivo. Sustained activation of the muscarinic receptor in vivo with the cholinergic agonist carbachol decreases muscarinic receptor number as much as 87% as measured by the specific binding of the potent muscarinic receptor in antagonist(More)
Chick ciliary ganglion neurons have nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) that mediate synaptic transmission through the ganglion. A cAMP-dependent process has previously been shown to enhance the ACh response of the neurons 2- to 3-fold without requiring the synthesis of new receptors. We show here that the receptors can be phosphorylated in situ by a(More)