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CONTEXT The evidence that breastfeeding improves cognitive development is based almost entirely on observational studies and is thus prone to confounding by subtle behavioral differences in the breastfeeding mother's behavior or her interaction with the infant. OBJECTIVE To assess whether prolonged and exclusive breastfeeding improves children's cognitive(More)
The primary goal of this research was to reveal de novo mutations in the liquidators (cleanup personnel) who emigrated to Israel from the Chernobyl disaster area. We used genome fingerprinting simple sequence repeat-anchored polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR (RAPD PCR). The methodology involved a(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the effectiveness and tolerability of the atypical neuroleptic risperidone in the treatment of juvenile mania. METHOD This is a retrospective chart review of outpatients with the diagnosis of bipolar disorder (DSM-IV) treated with risperidone at a university center. Response to treatment was evaluated using the Clinical Global(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the clinical correlates of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in children and adolescents. METHOD A systematic review of the extant literature on juvenile OCD was conducted examining age at onset, gender distribution, symptom phenomenology, psychiatric comorbidity, neurological and perinatal history, family psychiatric history,(More)
Incidence data are presented for the 7 most frequent specific categories of mental disorder available in the NIMH Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) program (major depressive disorder; panic disorder; phobic disorder; obsessive-compulsive disorder; drug abuse/dependence; alcohol abuse/dependence; cognitive impairment). The DSM-III case definitions in the(More)
We studied DSM-III diagnoses made by the lay Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) method in relation to a standardized DSM-III diagnosis by psychiatrists in the two-stage Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area mental morbidity survey. Generally, prevalence estimates based on the DIS one-month diagnoses were significantly different from those based on the(More)
Utilization of health and mental health services by non-institutionalized persons aged 18 years and older is examined based on interviews with probability samples of 3,000 to 3,500 persons in each of three sites of the National Institute of Mental Health Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) program: New Haven, Conn, Baltimore, and St Louis. In all three ECAs,(More)
Over one half of all persons seen in a primary care clinic were identified as having anxiety or depressive disorder by the primary care provider, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), or the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS). In only about 5% of all patients were findings positive on all three assessments concurrently. Both the GHQ and the practitioners(More)
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common psychiatric illness that occurs across the entire life span. Although most research on OCD pertains to adults, studies of the disorder in children and adolescents have burgeoned over the last decade. A review of this literature suggests that OCD has a bimodal incidence pattern, with one peak of onset at(More)
In December 1997, media reported hospital overcrowding and "the worst [flu epidemic] in the past two decades" in Los Angeles County (LAC). We found that rates of pneumonia and influenza deaths, hospitalizations, and claims were substantially higher for the 1997-98 influenza season than the previous six seasons. Hours of emergency medical services (EMS)(More)