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RATIONALE Depression and anxiety are significant comorbid and potentially modifiable conditions in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but their effects on exacerbations are not clear. OBJECTIVES To investigate the independent effect of depression and anxiety on the risk of COPD exacerbations and hospitalizations. METHODS A multicenter(More)
BACKGROUND The evidence that breastfeeding protects against obesity and a variety of chronic diseases comes almost entirely from observational studies, which have a potential for bias due to confounding, selection bias, and selective publication. OBJECTIVE We assessed whether an intervention designed to promote exclusive and prolonged breastfeeding(More)
BACKGROUND Available evidence suggests that prolonged and exclusive breastfeeding is associated with lower infant weight and length by 6 to 12 months of age. This evidence, however, is based on observational studies, which are unable to separate the effects of feeding mode per se from selection bias, reverse causality, and the confounding effects of(More)
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of different practice-based approaches to assist patients of primary care physicians to quit smoking and sustain cessation. Forty-four nonsmoking general practitioners volunteered for the study. After a period of training, they randomized 923 smoking clients, unselected for motivation toward(More)
The evidence that breast-feeding protects against obesity is based on observational studies, with potential for confounding and selection bias. This article summarizes a previously published study in which we assessed whether an intervention designed to promote exclusive and prolonged breast-feeding affects children's height, weight, adiposity, and blood(More)
The role of nutritional status in the prognosis of subjects with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was studied in a cohort of Canadian men and women followed for 3 to 5 yr. A total of 348 subjects who were recruited for a study of negative pressure ventilation were evaluated for lung function and body weight, and a subset who entered hospital for(More)
BACKGROUND Over the past 30 years, eight major randomized controlled trials of breast cancer screening--with mammography and/or clinical breast examination--have been conducted. Results from several trials have been updated during the past year, and initial results of three other trials have been reported. PURPOSE The National Cancer Institute held an(More)
Cognitive and behavioral effects of phenobarbital in toddlers were assessed in a randomized, placebo-controlled study of patients who had had a febrile seizure. There were no significant differences in IQ (Binet or Bayley Scales) between placebo and phenobarbital groups after eight to 12 months of therapy. However, detrimental effects of phenobarbital were(More)
BACKGROUND Opinions and recommendations about the optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding have been strongly divided, but few published studies have provided direct evidence on the relative risks and benefits of different breastfeeding durations in recipient infants. OBJECTIVE We examined the effects on infant growth and health of 3 compared with 6 mo(More)
PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to compare elderly patients' satisfaction and oral health-related quality of life with mandibular two-implant overdentures and conventional dentures. MATERIALS AND METHODS Sixty edentulous subjects aged 65 to 75 years were randomly assigned to two groups treated with maxillary conventional dentures and either a(More)