Stanley Shapiro

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The role of nutritional status in the prognosis of subjects with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was studied in a cohort of Canadian men and women followed for 3 to 5 yr. A total of 348 subjects who were recruited for a study of negative pressure ventilation were evaluated for lung function and body weight, and a subset who entered hospital for(More)
BACKGROUND Over the past 30 years, eight major randomized controlled trials of breast cancer screening--with mammography and/or clinical breast examination--have been conducted. Results from several trials have been updated during the past year, and initial results of three other trials have been reported. PURPOSE The National Cancer Institute held an(More)
CONTEXT The evidence that breastfeeding improves cognitive development is based almost entirely on observational studies and is thus prone to confounding by subtle behavioral differences in the breastfeeding mother's behavior or her interaction with the infant. OBJECTIVE To assess whether prolonged and exclusive breastfeeding improves children's cognitive(More)
BACKGROUND The evidence that breastfeeding protects against obesity and a variety of chronic diseases comes almost entirely from observational studies, which have a potential for bias due to confounding, selection bias, and selective publication. OBJECTIVE We assessed whether an intervention designed to promote exclusive and prolonged breastfeeding(More)
RATIONALE Depression and anxiety are significant comorbid and potentially modifiable conditions in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but their effects on exacerbations are not clear. OBJECTIVES To investigate the independent effect of depression and anxiety on the risk of COPD exacerbations and hospitalizations. METHODS A multicenter(More)
BACKGROUND Opinions and recommendations about the optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding have been strongly divided, but few published studies have provided direct evidence on the relative risks and benefits of different breastfeeding durations in recipient infants. OBJECTIVE We examined the effects on infant growth and health of 3 compared with 6 mo(More)
In recent years, scientific challenges in the application of randomized trials have become more apparent, especially with the extension of such trials to the assessment of nondrug treatments, such as health education, psychotherapy, and health care provision. Six issues (individual v group randomization, blinding and unblinding, the effect of trial(More)
PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to compare elderly patients' satisfaction and oral health-related quality of life with mandibular two-implant overdentures and conventional dentures. MATERIALS AND METHODS Sixty edentulous subjects aged 65 to 75 years were randomly assigned to two groups treated with maxillary conventional dentures and either a(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effectiveness of a new intensive functional rehabilitation (IFR) program on functional ability and quality of life (QOL) in persons who underwent a first total knee arthroplasty (TKA). DESIGN Randomized controlled trial. SETTING Ambulatory care. PARTICIPANTS Seventy-seven people with knee osteoarthritis. INTERVENTION Two(More)
The hypothesis that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have chronic inspiratory muscle fatigue was tested in an effectiveness trial in which negative pressure ventilation (NPV) was used to produce inspiratory muscle rest. In a double-blind study 184 patients with severe COPD were randomly allocated active or sham NPV treatment for a(More)