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Critics of public opinion polls often claim that methodological shortcuts taken to collect timely data produce biased results. This study compares two random digit dial national telephone surveys that used identical questionnaires but very different levels of effort: a "Standard" survey conducted over a 5-day period that used a sample of adults who were(More)
An examination of survey pretesting reveals a paradox. On the one hand, pre-testing is the only way to evaluate in advance whether a questionnaire causes problems for interviewers or respondents. Consequently, both elementary textbooks and experienced researchers declare pretesting indispensable. On the other hand, most textbooks offer minimal, if any,(More)
From 1979 to 1996, the Survey of Consumer Attitudes response rate remained roughly 70 percent. But number of calls to complete an interview and proportion of interviews requiring refusal conversion doubled. Using call-record histories, we explore what the consequences of lower response rates would have been if these additional efforts had not been(More)
The extrinsic incubation rate (inverse of the time in days from infection to median transmission) of western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) and St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) viruses by laboratory strains of Culex tarsalis Coquillett increased as a linear function of incubation temperatures from 10 to 30 degrees C. The estimated temperatures for zero(More)
The mechanism for long-term maintenance of St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus in California is unknown. Two possibilities are 1) that the virus is maintained locally in discrete enzootic foci by one or more reservoir mechanisms, and/or 2) that the foci are ephemeral in nature and virus is reintroduced periodically from other enzootic areas by migratory(More)
Flocks of sentinel domestic pigeons (Columbia livia) detected increases in St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) and western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) virus activity in southern California concurrently with flocks of sentinel chickens. However, occasional low-titered, transient seroconversions to both WEE and SLE viruses also occurred in pigeons during periods(More)
Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unless you have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use. Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that(More)
Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unless you have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use. Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that(More)
A serologic survey of the blacktail jackrabbit ( Lepus californicus ) for infections with 10 arboviruses was conducted from 1971 through 1974 along the Sacramento River in Butte County, California. Of 325 animals captured and bled a total of 493 times, 40% were found positive for hemagglutination-inhibiting (HI) antibody to California encephalitis (CE)(More)
St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus has become established in the Los Angeles Basin of California, where it most likely is maintained by horizontal transmission among Culex tarsalis Coquillet and passerine birds in park-riparian habitat. Viral transmission also was detected at low levels in residential habitat by the infrequent seroconversion of sentinel(More)