Learn More
  • R Obert, W Illiam Fogel, Marx Smith, Marshall, Becker, Christopher J Acito +38 others
  • 1993
Economic history has contributed significantly to the formulation of economic theory.* Among the economists who have found history an important source for their ideas are Failure to take account of history, as Simon Kuznets (1941) stressed, has often led to a misunderstanding of current economic problems by investigators who have not realized that their(More)
Direct measures of labor-force quality from international mathematics and science test scores are strongly related to growth. Indirect specification tests are generally consistent with a causal link: direct spending on schools is unrelated to student performance differences; the estimated growth effects of improved labor-force quality hold when East Asian(More)
Can part of Africa's current underdevelopment be explained by its slave trades? To explore this question empirically, I combined data from ship records with data from various historical documents reporting slave ethnicities, and construct estimates of the number of slaves exported from each country during Africa's slave trades between 1400 and 1900. I find(More)
We would like to express deep appreciation for the help of our research assistants Elisa Mariscal, Patricia Juarez, and Leah Brooks. We have also benefited from discussions with ABSTRACT Whereas traditional explanations of differences in long-run paths of development across the Americas generally point to the significance of differences in national heritage(More)
School-to-work patterns and issues are discussed for seven economies (France, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, Sweden, UK and US). The emphasis is placed on differences across countries in both the current labour market position of young people and recent trends therein, along with the institutions that regulate youth education, training and employment. The(More)
We construct a model of simultaneous change and persistence in institutions. The model consists of landowning elites and workers, and the key economic decision concerns the form of economic institutions regulating the transaction of labor (e.g., competitive markets versus labor repression). The main idea is that equilibrium economic institutions are a(More)
What motivated men to risk death in the most horrific war in U.S. history when pay was low and irregular and military punishment strategies were weak? In such a situation creating group loyalty by promoting social capital is of paramount importance and in the Civil War was the cement of both armies. We find that individual and company socioeconomic and(More)
essay came about at Ismail Serageldin's behest. He felt it would be a worthwhile exercise if I were to connect the ideas developed in Dasgupta (1993) with those in Putnam (1993), to see if the concept of social capital has potency for an understanding of the kinds of institution that are most likely to protect and promote human well-being in poor countries.(More)
The rise of Western Europe after 1500 is due largely to growth in countries with access to the Atlantic Ocean and with substantial trade with the New World, Africa, and Asia via the Atlantic. This trade and the associated colonialism affected Europe not only directly, but also indirectly by inducing institutional change. Where " initial " political(More)