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Most solar UV measurements are relative to the horizontal plane. However, problems arise when one uses those UV measurements to perform risk or benefit assessments because they do not yield the actual doses people get while they are outdoors. To better estimate the UV doses people actually get while outdoors, scientists need geometric conversion factors(More)
BACKGROUND Sunlight contains ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation (290-315 nm) that affects human health in both detrimental (skin cancers) and beneficial (vitamin D3) ways. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations from young Americans (≤ 19 years) show that many have deficient (< 50 nmol/L, 20 ng/mL) or insufficient (< 75 nmol/L, 30 ng/mL) vitamin D levels,(More)
Many solar UV measurements, either terrestrial or personal, weight the raw data by the erythemal action spectrum. However, a problem arises when one tries to estimate the benefit of vitamin D(3) production based on erythemally weighted outdoor doses, like those measured by calibrated R-B meters or polysulphone badges, because the differences between action(More)
Management practices, stocking rate and flock size may affect laying hen welfare but there have been few replicated studies in commercial non-cage systems that investigate this. This study used a broad range of physical and physiological indicators to assess the welfare of hens in 36 commercial flocks. Six laying period treatments were examined with each(More)
BACKGROUND Sunlight contains UV radiation that affects human health in both detrimental (skin cancers) and beneficial (vitamin D(3)) ways. An evaluation of the vitamin D status of adult Americans (22-40, 41-59, 60+ yr) show many have deficient or insufficient serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, indicating they are not getting enough from dietary sources or(More)
Measurements on 28 pens of pigs containing 384 animals to be slaughtered at a commercial abattoir showed that the mean ear temperatures of the pigs in each pen, measured with a thermal imaging camera, were significantly correlated (r=0.71, P<0.001) with the mean temperature of the blood the pigs lost at exsanguination. In measurements on 220 pigs in 16 of(More)
A total of 417 pigs with an estimated average liveweight of 91 kg were transported to slaughter in three journeys, carried out in late June, each consisting of a three-hour drive followed by a one-hour holding period at the slaughter plant before they were unloaded. The pigs were accommodated on the lower two decks of a three-deck articulated lorry, each(More)
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