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Annexins are a multigene family in most plant species and are suggested to play a role in a wide variety of essential cellular processes. In Arabidopsis thaliana there are eight different annexins (AnnAt1-8), which range from 29% to 83% in deduced amino acid sequence identity. As a first step toward clarifying the individual functions of these annexins, in(More)
Although in most plant species no more than two annexin genes have been reported to date, seven annexin homologs have been identified in Arabidopsis, Annexin Arabidopsis 1-7 (AnnAt1--AnnAt7). This establishes that annexins can be a diverse, multigene protein family in a single plant species. Here we compare and analyze these seven annexin gene sequences and(More)
Extracellular ATP can serve as a signaling agent in animal cells, and, as suggested by recent reports, may also do so in plant cells. In animal cells it induces the production of reactive oxygen species through the mediation of NADPH oxidase. Similarly, here we report that in leaves of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), applied ATP, but not AMP or(More)
Extracellular ATP is a known receptor agonist in animals and was previously shown to alter plant growth, and so we investigated whether ATP derivatives could function outside plant cells as signaling agents. Signaling responses induced by exogenous nucleotides in animal cells typically include increases in free cytoplasmic calcium concentration(More)
ATP and other nucleoside triphosphates not only drive energy-dependent reactions inside cells, but can also function outside the plasma membrane in the extracellular matrix, where they function as agonists that can induce diverse physiological responses without being hydrolyzed. This external role of ATP is well established in animal cells but only recently(More)
In Arabidopsis, we previously identified two highly similar apyrases, AtAPY1 and AtAPY2. Here, T-DNA knockout (KO) mutations of each gene were isolated in a reverse genetic approach. The single KO mutants lacked a discernible phenotype. The double KO mutants, however, exhibited a complete inhibition of pollen germination, and this correlated with positive(More)
A new variation of the antimonate precipitation technique, employing tannic acid in the primary aldehyde-antimonate fixative, is described for use in the subcellular localization of calcium in various tissues. Chelation studies and electron microscopic, X-ray microanalytical studies of antimonate precipitates in etiolated oat tissues indicate that calcium(More)
Plant annexins belong to a multigene family and are suggested to play a role in stress responses. A full-length cDNA for a gene encoding an annexin protein was isolated and characterized from Brassica juncea (AnnBj1). AnnBj1 message levels were regulated by abscisic acid, ethephon, salicylic acid, and methyl jasmonate as well as chemicals that induce(More)
Annexins act as targets of calcium signals in eukaryotic cells, and recent results suggest that they play an important role in plant stress responses. We found that in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), AnnAt1 (for annexin 1) mRNA levels were up-regulated in leaves by most of the stress treatments applied. Plants overexpressing AnnAt1 protein were more(More)
Proteins that interact with the actin cytoskeleton often modulate the dynamics or organization of the cytoskeleton or use the cytoskeleton to control their localization. In plants, very few actin-binding proteins have been identified and most are thought to modulate cytoskeleton function. To identify actin-binding proteins that are unique to plants, the(More)