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Extracellular ATP is a known receptor agonist in animals and was previously shown to alter plant growth, and so we investigated whether ATP derivatives could function outside plant cells as signaling agents. Signaling responses induced by exogenous nucleotides in animal cells typically include increases in free cytoplasmic calcium concentration(More)
Plant annexins are Ca2+-dependent phospholipid-binding proteins and are encoded by multigene families. They are implicated in the regulation of plant development as well as protection from drought and other stresses. They are well characterized in Arabidopsis, however no such characterization of rice annexin gene family has been reported thus far. With the(More)
Xenobiotic resistance in animals, plants, yeast, and bacteria is known to involve ATP binding cassette transporters that efflux invading toxins. We present data from yeast and a higher plant indicating that xenobiotic resistance also involves extracellular ATP degradation. Transgenic upregulation of ecto-ATPase alone confers resistance to organisms that(More)
Gravity directs the early polar development in single cells of Ceratopteris richardii Brogn. It acts over a limited period of time during which it irreversibly determines the axis of the spore cell's development. A self-referencing calcium selective electrode was utilized to record the net movement of calcium across the cell membrane at different positions(More)
Single-celled spores of the fern Ceratopteris richardii undergo gravity-directed cell polarity development that is driven by polar calcium currents. Here we present results that establish a role for nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP signaling in transducing the stimulus of gravity to directed polarization of the spores. Application of specific NO donors and scavengers(More)
BACKGROUND Currently, clustering with some form of correlation coefficient as the gene similarity metric has become a popular method for profiling genomic data. The Pearson correlation coefficient and the standard deviation (SD)-weighted correlation coefficient are the two most widely-used correlations as the similarity metrics in clustering microarray(More)
Ferns are the only major lineage of vascular plants not represented by a sequenced nuclear genome. This lack of genome sequence information significantly impedes our ability to understand and reconstruct genome evolution not only in ferns, but across all land plants. Azolla and Ceratopteris are ideal and complementary candidates to be the first ferns to(More)
Plant and animal cells release or secrete ATP by various mechanisms, and this activity allows extracellular ATP to serve as a signalling molecule. Recent reports suggest that extracellular ATP induces plant responses ranging from increased cytosolic calcium to changes in auxin transport, xenobiotic resistance, pollen germination, and growth. Although(More)
Higher plants exhibit cellular responsiveness to the exogenous application of purine nucleotides in a manner consistent with a cell-cell signaling function for these molecules. Like animals, plants respond to extracellular ATP, ADP, and stable analogues (e.g., ATPgammaS and ADPbetaS) by increasing the cytoplasmic concentration of calcium. Agonist substrate(More)
Apyrases are enzymes that efficiently hydrolyze ATP and ADP and may operate both inside and outside the cell. Although apyrases are important to a variety of cellular mechanisms and uses in industry, there are no available apyrase-specific inhibitors. Colorimetric assays based on the Fiske-Subbarow method for measuring inorganic phosphate are able to detect(More)