Stanley J. Bolanowski

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Although previous physiological and anatomical experiments have identified four afferent fiber types (PC, RA, SA II, and SA I) in glabrous (nonhairy) skin of the human somatosensory periphery, only three have been shown to mediate tactile (mechanoreceptive) sensation. Psychophysical evidence that four channels (P, NP I, NP II, and NP III) do, indeed,(More)
Strength loss following disuse may result from alterations in muscle and/or neurological properties. In this paper, we report our findings on human plantar flexor neurological properties following 4 wk of limb suspension [unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS)], along with the effect of motor imagery (MI) training on these properties. In the companion(More)
Frequency of vibration has not been widely used as a parameter for encoding speech-derived information on the skin. Where it has been used, the frequencies employed have not necessarily been compatible with the capabilities of the tactile channel, and no determination was made of the information transmitted by the frequency variable, as differentiated from(More)
Experiments were conducted in which threshold-frequency characteristics were measured on the hairy skin of the forearm of human observers. Thresholds were measured with two stimulus probe areas (2.9 and 0.008 cm2) at three skin-surface temperatures (15 degrees, 30 degrees, and 40 degrees C). The results suggest that whereas glabrous skin uses four distinct(More)
Thresholds for detecting vibrotactile signals of variable frequency applied to the thenar eminence of the hand by small and large contactors were measured in subjects ranging in age from 10 to 89 years. Thresholds were found to increase as a function of age, but the rate of increase was greater after than before the age of 65 years. The rate of loss of(More)
The difference threshold for the detection of changes in vibration amplitude was measured as a function of the intensity and frequency of stimuli delivered through a 2.9-cm2 contactor to the thenar eminence. Stimuli were either 25- or 250-Hz sinusoids, narrow-band noise centered at 250 Hz, or wideband noise. Thresholds were measured by two-interval,(More)
Thresholds were measured for the detection of vibratory stimuli of variable frequency and duration applied to the index fingertip and thenar eminence through contactors of different sizes. The effects of stimulus frequency could be accounted for by the frequency characteristics of the Pacinian (P), non-Pacinian (NP) I, and NP III channels previously(More)
When the horseshoe crab is kept in constant darkness, the lateral eye produces larger electroretinographic and optic nerve responses at night than during the day. These circadian rhythms are mediated by synchronous bursts of efferent impulses in the optic nerve trunk. The endogenous efferent activity appears to increase both the gain and the quantum catch(More)
A series of experiments demonstrated the role of higher level cognitive processes, such as attention, in tactile perception. The first series of experiments demonstrated that automatic orienting to a tactile stimulus resulted in inhibition of subsequent stimuli at that body site--inhibition of return (IOR). A possible explanation suggests that inhibition of(More)
It has long been accepted that action potentials arising from Pacinian corpuscles (PCs) originate at the first node of Ranvier located within the PC and that the mechanotransduction events (receptor potentials) are formed by stretch-activated channels selectively sensitive predominantly to Na+. Also, it has been shown previously that tetrodotoxin (TTX)(More)